Fixing curl SSL certificate problem

So I was having an issue with curl (actually the PHP client at first, but also with the command-line version).

The issue manifested like this:

jj5@orac:~/temp/curl$ curl https://test.jj5.net/my-file.txt
curl: (60) SSL certificate problem: unable to get local issuer certificate
More details here: http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

curl performs SSL certificate verification by default, using a "bundle"
 of Certificate Authority (CA) public keys (CA certs). If the default
 bundle file isn't adequate, you can specify an alternate file
 using the --cacert option.
If this HTTPS server uses a certificate signed by a CA represented in
 the bundle, the certificate verification probably failed due to a
 problem with the certificate (it might be expired, or the name might
 not match the domain name in the URL).
If you'd like to turn off curl's verification of the certificate, use
 the -k (or --insecure) option.

I ran the command in strace:

jj5@orac:~/temp/curl$ strace curl https://test.jj5.net/my-file.txt 2>&1 | less

Noticed this strace output:

stat("/etc/ssl/certs/8d28ae65.0", 0x7ffc33143630) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

There was no /etc/ssl/certs/8d28ae65.0 file.

I found a copy of 8d28ae65.0 here:

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

I made a copy of the cert here:

root@orac:/usr/local/share/ca-certificates# ll 8d28ae65.crt 
-rw-r--r-- 1 root staff 2.2K Feb 21 06:53 8d28ae65.crt

I checked what it had to say about itself:

root@orac:/usr/local/share/ca-certificates# openssl x509 -in 8d28ae65.crt -text -noout
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number:
            2b:2e:6e:ea:d9:75:36:6c:14:8a:6e:db:a3:7c:8c:07
    Signature Algorithm: sha384WithRSAEncryption
        Issuer: C=GB, ST=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=COMODO CA Limited, CN=COMODO RSA Certification Authority
        Validity
            Not Before: Feb 12 00:00:00 2014 GMT
            Not After : Feb 11 23:59:59 2029 GMT
        Subject: C=GB, ST=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=COMODO CA Limited, CN=COMODO RSA Domain Validation Secure Server CA
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
                Public-Key: (2048 bit)
                Modulus:
                    00:8e:c2:02:19:e1:a0:59:a4:eb:38:35:8d:2c:fd:
                    01:d0:d3:49:c0:64:c7:0b:62:05:45:16:3a:a8:a0:
                    c0:0c:02:7f:1d:cc:db:c4:a1:6d:77:03:a3:0f:86:
                    f9:e3:06:9c:3e:0b:81:8a:9b:49:1b:ad:03:be:fa:
                    4b:db:8c:20:ed:d5:ce:5e:65:8e:3e:0d:af:4c:c2:
                    b0:b7:45:5e:52:2f:34:de:48:24:64:b4:41:ae:00:
                    97:f7:be:67:de:9e:d0:7a:a7:53:80:3b:7c:ad:f5:
                    96:55:6f:97:47:0a:7c:85:8b:22:97:8d:b3:84:e0:
                    96:57:d0:70:18:60:96:8f:ee:2d:07:93:9d:a1:ba:
                    ca:d1:cd:7b:e9:c4:2a:9a:28:21:91:4d:6f:92:4f:
                    25:a5:f2:7a:35:dd:26:dc:46:a5:d0:ac:59:35:8c:
                    ff:4e:91:43:50:3f:59:93:1e:6c:51:21:ee:58:14:
                    ab:fe:75:50:78:3e:4c:b0:1c:86:13:fa:6b:98:bc:
                    e0:3b:94:1e:85:52:dc:03:93:24:18:6e:cb:27:51:
                    45:e6:70:de:25:43:a4:0d:e1:4a:a5:ed:b6:7e:c8:
                    cd:6d:ee:2e:1d:27:73:5d:dc:45:30:80:aa:e3:b2:
                    41:0b:af:bd:44:87:da:b9:e5:1b:9d:7f:ae:e5:85:
                    82:a5
                Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: 
                keyid:BB:AF:7E:02:3D:FA:A6:F1:3C:84:8E:AD:EE:38:98:EC:D9:32:32:D4

            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: 
                90:AF:6A:3A:94:5A:0B:D8:90:EA:12:56:73:DF:43:B4:3A:28:DA:E7
            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature, Certificate Sign, CRL Sign
            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:TRUE, pathlen:0
            X509v3 Extended Key Usage: 
                TLS Web Server Authentication, TLS Web Client Authentication
            X509v3 Certificate Policies: 
                Policy: X509v3 Any Policy
                Policy: 2.23.140.1.2.1

            X509v3 CRL Distribution Points: 

                Full Name:
                  URI:http://crl.comodoca.com/COMODORSACertificationAuthority.crl

            Authority Information Access: 
                CA Issuers - URI:http://crt.comodoca.com/COMODORSAAddTrustCA.crt
                OCSP - URI:http://ocsp.comodoca.com

    Signature Algorithm: sha384WithRSAEncryption
         4e:2b:76:4f:92:1c:62:36:89:ba:77:c1:27:05:f4:1c:d6:44:
         9d:a9:9a:3e:aa:d5:66:66:01:3e:ea:49:e6:a2:35:bc:fa:f6:
         dd:95:8e:99:35:98:0e:36:18:75:b1:dd:dd:50:72:7c:ae:dc:
         77:88:ce:0f:f7:90:20:ca:a3:67:2e:1f:56:7f:7b:e1:44:ea:
         42:95:c4:5d:0d:01:50:46:15:f2:81:89:59:6c:8a:dd:8c:f1:
         12:a1:8d:3a:42:8a:98:f8:4b:34:7b:27:3b:08:b4:6f:24:3b:
         72:9d:63:74:58:3c:1a:6c:3f:4f:c7:11:9a:c8:a8:f5:b5:37:
         ef:10:45:c6:6c:d9:e0:5e:95:26:b3:eb:ad:a3:b9:ee:7f:0c:
         9a:66:35:73:32:60:4e:e5:dd:8a:61:2c:6e:52:11:77:68:96:
         d3:18:75:51:15:00:1b:74:88:dd:e1:c7:38:04:43:28:e9:16:
         fd:d9:05:d4:5d:47:27:60:d6:fb:38:3b:6c:72:a2:94:f8:42:
         1a:df:ed:6f:06:8c:45:c2:06:00:aa:e4:e8:dc:d9:b5:e1:73:
         78:ec:f6:23:dc:d1:dd:6c:8e:1a:8f:a5:ea:54:7c:96:b7:c3:
         fe:55:8e:8d:49:5e:fc:64:bb:cf:3e:bd:96:eb:69:cd:bf:e0:
         48:f1:62:82:10:e5:0c:46:57:f2:33:da:d0:c8:63:ed:c6:1f:
         94:05:96:4a:1a:91:d1:f7:eb:cf:8f:52:ae:0d:08:d9:3e:a8:
         a0:51:e9:c1:87:74:d5:c9:f7:74:ab:2e:53:fb:bb:7a:fb:97:
         e2:f8:1f:26:8f:b3:d2:a0:e0:37:5b:28:3b:31:e5:0e:57:2d:
         5a:b8:ad:79:ac:5e:20:66:1a:a5:b9:a6:b5:39:c1:f5:98:43:
         ff:ee:f9:a7:a7:fd:ee:ca:24:3d:80:16:c4:17:8f:8a:c1:60:
         a1:0c:ae:5b:43:47:91:4b:d5:9a:17:5f:f9:d4:87:c1:c2:8c:
         b7:e7:e2:0f:30:19:37:86:ac:e0:dc:42:03:e6:94:a8:9d:ae:
         fd:0f:24:51:94:ce:92:08:d1:fc:50:f0:03:40:7b:88:59:ed:
         0e:dd:ac:d2:77:82:34:dc:06:95:02:d8:90:f9:2d:ea:37:d5:
         1a:60:d0:67:20:d7:d8:42:0b:45:af:82:68:de:dd:66:24:37:
         90:29:94:19:46:19:25:b8:80:d7:cb:d4:86:28:6a:44:70:26:
         23:62:a9:9f:86:6f:bf:ba:90:70:d2:56:77:85:78:ef:ea:25:
         a9:17:ce:50:72:8c:00:3a:aa:e3:db:63:34:9f:f8:06:71:01:
         e2:82:20:d4:fe:6f:bd:b1

Seems legit! :)

So I installed it:

root@orac:/usr/local/share/ca-certificates# update-ca-certificates

Bug fixed!

Namecheap SSL CSR and CA Bundle for PostiveSSL certs

CSR generation for PositiveSSL and PositiveSSL WildCard with Apache2/OpenSSL see: CSR Generation: Using OpenSSL (Apache w/mod_ssl, NGINX, OS X):

 openssl req -nodes -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout myserver.key -out server.csr

To generate the CA bundle see this article:

 cat COMODORSADomainValidationSecureServerCA.crt COMODORSAAddTrustCA.crt AddTrustExternalCARoot.crt > your_domain.ca-bundle

HTTPS and Client Certificates

I'm half-way through setting up my web-server for client certificate authentication. Have to get a few other things done first so I'm going to come back to this. Here are my notes so far.

I'm reading OpenSSL and Certificates over on Ubuntu help, and that seems to be a fairly good guide for setting up the server side of things.

I read this article on Email Certificates but that wasn't that useful for what I'm doing.

I learned a little bit about the update-ca-certificates command that is part of the ca-certificates package, and maybe that will be useful down the track.

In my travels I discovered NSS and SSL Error Codes, but that's probably not too useful either.

The OpenSSL FAQ was a really useful read. I'll probably be referring back to that.

I learned about cacert.org which is interesting but probably something I won't be using.

There's an SSL Certificates HOWTO over on TLDP and if I can find the time I'd like to read that whole thing, although from what I've read so far it's not complete.

The mod_ssl project has a really handy Reference for all the Apache configuration options, worth a read of.

And that's it for now. I'll pick this up again in a day or two.