Difference between revisions of "John's Linux page"

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Note: the info on this page is probably Ubuntu (and Debian as an outside chance) specific, because I use Ubuntu pretty much everywhere these days.
 
Note: the info on this page is probably Ubuntu (and Debian as an outside chance) specific, because I use Ubuntu pretty much everywhere these days.
 +
 +
You might also be interested in [[John's hacks]].
  
 
Quick jump to: [[#NetBeans|NetBeans]].
 
Quick jump to: [[#NetBeans|NetBeans]].
 +
 +
= References =
 +
 +
== Command-line ==
 +
 +
See [https://zaiste.net/posts/shell-commands-rust/ Shell Commands I Wish I Knew Earlier] for some interesting options.
  
 
= System =
 
= System =
 +
 +
== Reporting system specifications from the command-line ==
 +
 +
Try any of these:
 +
 +
# neofetch
 +
# inxi
 +
# hwinfo --short
 +
 +
You may need to install the relevant package.
  
 
== Determining which Debian/Ubuntu release your are running ==
 
== Determining which Debian/Ubuntu release your are running ==
Line 44: Line 62:
  
 
  # lshw
 
  # lshw
 
And for CPUs:
 
 
# lscpu
 
  
 
And for PCI devices:
 
And for PCI devices:
Line 81: Line 95:
 
  Info:      Processes: 355 Uptime: 11 days Memory: 21198.3/32043.3MB Client: Shell (bash) inxi: 2.3.5
 
  Info:      Processes: 355 Uptime: 11 days Memory: 21198.3/32043.3MB Client: Shell (bash) inxi: 2.3.5
  
== Viewing syslog and other logs with KSystemLog ==
+
=== Motherboard info ===
 +
 
 +
# dmidecode -t 2
 +
 
 +
=== CPU info ===
 +
 
 +
# lscpu
 +
 
 +
or:
 +
 
 +
# cat /proc/cpuinfo
  
Run the 'KSystemLog' program under KDE for a handy log viewer GUI.
+
=== RAM info ===
  
= Power =
+
# dmidecode --type memory
  
== Reporting on PowerShield DEFENDER UPS status ==
+
=== PCI info ===
  
To see the status of the [https://powershield.com.au/powersheild_product/defender/ PowerShield DEFENDER] systems on John's LAN:
+
# lspci -v
  
$ upsc defender
+
=== Drive info ===
  
E.g.:
+
# cat /proc/partitions
  
jj5@orac:~$ upsc defender
+
and:
Init SSL without certificate database
 
battery.charge: 100
 
battery.voltage: 27.40
 
battery.voltage.high: 26.00
 
battery.voltage.low: 20.80
 
battery.voltage.nominal: 24.0
 
device.type: ups
 
driver.name: blazer_usb
 
driver.parameter.pollinterval: 2
 
driver.parameter.port: auto
 
driver.parameter.synchronous: no
 
driver.version: 2.7.4
 
driver.version.internal: 0.12
 
input.current.nominal: 5.0
 
input.frequency: 50.1
 
input.frequency.nominal: 50
 
input.voltage: 242.6
 
input.voltage.fault: 242.6
 
input.voltage.nominal: 240
 
output.voltage: 242.6
 
ups.beeper.status: disabled
 
ups.delay.shutdown: 30
 
ups.delay.start: 180
 
ups.load: 14
 
ups.productid: 5161
 
ups.status: OL
 
ups.type: offline / line interactive
 
ups.vendorid: 0665
 
  
== Run commands on PowerShield DEFENDER UPS batteries ==
+
# hdparm -I /dev/sda
  
You can run "instant commands" using the '''upscmd''' command.
+
and:
  
We use the 'beeper.toggle' instant command in our Salt Stack config to disable the beeper, see e.g.:
+
# smartctl --info /dev/sda
  
diligence:/srv/salt/conf/app/defender-1200.sls
+
You can check if a drive is SSD or not with:
  
To see "instant commands" supported by the PowerShield DEFENDER:
+
# cat /sys/block/sde/queue/rotational
  
  $ upscmd -l defender
+
  0=SSD
 +
1=HDD
  
E.g.:
+
== Viewing syslog and other logs with KSystemLog ==
  
jj5@orac:~$ upscmd -l defender
+
Run the 'KSystemLog' program under KDE for a handy log viewer GUI.
Instant commands supported on UPS [defender]:
 
 
beeper.toggle - Toggle the UPS beeper
 
load.off - Turn off the load immediately
 
load.on - Turn on the load immediately
 
shutdown.return - Turn off the load and return when power is back
 
shutdown.stayoff - Turn off the load and remain off
 
shutdown.stop - Stop a shutdown in progress
 
test.battery.start - Start a battery test
 
test.battery.start.deep - Start a deep battery test
 
test.battery.start.quick - Start a quick battery test
 
test.battery.stop - Stop the battery test
 
  
= Environment =
+
= CPU =
  
== Configuring vim as your editor ==
+
== Monitoring CPU clock speed ==
  
Sometimes all you need is:
+
Try something like this:
  
  $ export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim
+
  $ watch 'grep MHz /proc/cpuinfo | awk "{ print \$4 }" | sort -n'
  
Which works for svn, for example. Add it to your ~/.profile file to have it set for all login sessions.
+
= Power =
  
Other times you need to run
+
== Reporting on PowerShield DEFENDER UPS status ==
  
# update-alternatives --config editor
+
Before running `upsc` ensure service is running:
  
And then select vim from the list. This is what you do to configure your visudo editor.
+
# upsdrvctl start
  
== Configuring your locale ==
+
To see the status of the [https://powershield.com.au/powersheild_product/defender/ PowerShield DEFENDER] systems on John's LAN:
  
  $ sudo /usr/sbin/locale-gen en_AU.UTF-8
+
  $ upsc defender
$ sudo /usr/sbin/update-locale LANG=en_AU.UTF-8
 
  
= User and group management =
+
E.g.:
  
== Adding a user ==
+
jj5@orac:~$ upsc defender
 
+
Init SSL without certificate database
To add a new user on a linux system:
+
battery.charge: 100
 +
battery.voltage: 27.40
 +
battery.voltage.high: 26.00
 +
battery.voltage.low: 20.80
 +
battery.voltage.nominal: 24.0
 +
device.type: ups
 +
driver.name: blazer_usb
 +
driver.parameter.pollinterval: 2
 +
driver.parameter.port: auto
 +
driver.parameter.synchronous: no
 +
driver.version: 2.7.4
 +
driver.version.internal: 0.12
 +
input.current.nominal: 5.0
 +
input.frequency: 50.1
 +
input.frequency.nominal: 50
 +
input.voltage: 242.6
 +
input.voltage.fault: 242.6
 +
input.voltage.nominal: 240
 +
output.voltage: 242.6
 +
ups.beeper.status: disabled
 +
ups.delay.shutdown: 30
 +
ups.delay.start: 180
 +
ups.load: 14
 +
ups.productid: 5161
 +
ups.status: OL
 +
ups.type: offline / line interactive
 +
ups.vendorid: 0665
  
# useradd username
+
== Run commands on PowerShield DEFENDER UPS batteries ==
# passwd username
 
  
To have the home directory created from '/etc/skel' use the 'adduser' script instead:
+
You can run "instant commands" using the '''upscmd''' command.
  
# adduser username
+
We use the 'beeper.toggle' instant command in our Salt Stack config to disable the beeper, see e.g.:
  
== Adding a user to a group ==
+
diligence:/srv/salt/conf/app/defender-1200.sls
  
To add an existing user to an existing group:
+
To see "instant commands" supported by the PowerShield DEFENDER:
  
  # gpasswd -a username group
+
  $ upscmd -l defender
  
e.g. to add user 'jj5' to the 'sudo' group:
+
E.g.:
  
  # gpasswd -a jj5 sudo
+
  jj5@orac:~$ upscmd -l defender
 +
Instant commands supported on UPS [defender]:
 +
 +
beeper.toggle - Toggle the UPS beeper
 +
load.off - Turn off the load immediately
 +
load.on - Turn on the load immediately
 +
shutdown.return - Turn off the load and return when power is back
 +
shutdown.stayoff - Turn off the load and remain off
 +
shutdown.stop - Stop a shutdown in progress
 +
test.battery.start - Start a battery test
 +
test.battery.start.deep - Start a deep battery test
 +
test.battery.start.quick - Start a quick battery test
 +
test.battery.stop - Stop the battery test
  
Alternatively you can use adduser, passing the username and group:
+
= Environment =
  
# adduser username group
+
== Configuring vim as your editor ==
  
e.g. to add user 'sclaughl' to the 'staff' group:
+
Sometimes all you need is:
  
  # adduser sclaughl staff
+
  $ export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim
  
== Disabling a user account ==
+
Which works for svn, for example. Add it to your ~/.profile file to have it set for all login sessions.
  
You can disable a user account with:
+
Other times you need to run
  
  # passwd -l user
+
  # update-alternatives --config editor
  
Note: that's a lower-case L, not a one.
+
And then select vim from the list. This is what you do to configure your visudo editor.
  
== Enabling a disabled user account ==
+
== Configuring your locale ==
  
To can re-enable a locked user account with:
+
$ sudo /usr/sbin/locale-gen en_AU.UTF-8
 +
$ sudo /usr/sbin/update-locale LANG=en_AU.UTF-8
  
# passwd -u user
+
= User and group management =
  
== Finding which user you are logged in as ==
+
== Adding a user ==
  
To determine which user you are running as enter the command:
+
To add a new user on a linux system:
  
  $ whoami
+
  # useradd username
 +
# passwd username
  
== Finding which groups you are a member of ==
+
To have the home directory created from '/etc/skel' use the 'adduser' script instead:
  
To find which groups you are a member of:
+
# adduser username
  
$ groups
+
== Adding a user to a group ==
  
or
+
To add an existing user to an existing group:
  
  $ groups username
+
  # gpasswd -a username group
  
Where 'username' is the username of the user you are querying, e.g.:
+
e.g. to add user 'jj5' to the 'sudo' group:
  
  $ groups jj5
+
  # gpasswd -a jj5 sudo
  
== Finding who else is logged in to the system ==
+
Alternatively you can use adduser, passing the username and group:
  
To see who else is logged in,
+
# adduser username group
  
$ who
+
e.g. to add user 'sclaughl' to the 'staff' group:
  
== Running a command as a particular user ==
+
# adduser sclaughl staff
  
To run "svn update" as the user www-data:
+
== Disabling a user account ==
  
$ sudo su -c "svn update" www-data
+
You can disable a user account with:
  
== Reporting user and group info for the current user ==
+
# passwd -l user
  
$ id
+
Note: that's a lower-case L, not a one.
  
= Memory management =
+
== Enabling a disabled user account ==
  
== Checking available memory ==
+
To can re-enable a locked user account with:
  
To report memory statistics in megabytes:
+
# passwd -u user
  
$ free -m
+
== Finding which user you are logged in as ==
  
== Check for swap thrashing ==
+
To determine which user you are running as enter the command:
  
Check your virtual memory status with vmstat:
+
$ whoami
  
$ vmstat
+
== Finding which groups you are a member of ==
  
== Report memory type ==
+
To find which groups you are a member of:
  
Report on RAM DIMMs:
+
$ groups
  
# dmidecode --type 17
+
or
  
Report on RAM and CPU cache:
+
$ groups username
  
# lshw -short -C memory
+
Where 'username' is the username of the user you are querying, e.g.:
  
Or for more detail:
+
$ groups jj5
  
# lshw -C memory
+
== Finding who else is logged in to the system ==
  
= Video/display management =
+
To see who else is logged in,
  
== Viewing EDID data for attached monitor ==
+
$ who
  
To view [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Display_Identification_Data EDID] data for an attached monitor (requires the [https://packages.debian.org/stable/main/edid-decode edid-decode] package):
+
== Running a command as a particular user ==
  
$ cd /sys/class/drm
+
To run "svn update" as the user www-data:
$ ls
 
$ cd card0-HDMI-A-1
 
$ edid-decode edid
 
  
= Process management =
+
$ sudo su -c "svn update" www-data
  
== Using 'top' for dynamic resource usage reporting ==
+
== Reporting user and group info for the current user ==
  
To run top:
+
$ id
  
$ top
+
= Memory management =
  
See [https://www.thegeekstuff.com/2010/01/15-practical-unix-linux-top-command-examples/ 15 Practical Linux Top Command Examples] for some hints on usage.
+
== Checking available memory ==
  
To see usage for a specific user run e.g.:
+
To report memory statistics in megabytes:
  
  $ top -u jj5
+
  $ free -m
  
To see full command-line press 'c'.
+
== Check for swap thrashing ==
  
When you're in 'top' you can:
+
Check your virtual memory status with vmstat:
  
* press '1' (one) to toggle CPU aggregation
+
$ vmstat
* press < and > to change the sort column
 
  
== Changing memory reporting in 'top' ==
+
== Report memory type ==
  
To run top:
+
Report on RAM DIMMs:
  
  $ top
+
  # dmidecode --type 17
  
Press 'E' to switch between top memory units (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.)
+
Report on RAM and CPU cache (including L1, L2, and L3):
  
Press 'e' to switch between bottom memory units (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.)
+
# lshw -short -C memory
  
Press 'M' to sort by memory utilisation.
+
Or for more detail:
  
Press 'm' to switch between various display modes.
+
# lshw -C memory
  
== Showing full command-line in 'top' ==
+
= Video/display management =
  
To see the full command-line for processes run with -c:
+
== Viewing EDID data for attached monitor ==
  
$ top -c
+
To view [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Display_Identification_Data EDID] data for an attached monitor (requires the [https://packages.debian.org/stable/main/edid-decode edid-decode] package):
  
== Listing all processes currently running which were started in your current shell session ==
+
$ cd /sys/class/drm
 +
$ ls
 +
$ cd card0-HDMI-A-1
 +
$ edid-decode edid
  
$ ps -fl
+
= Process management =
  
== Killing specific processes ==
+
== Using 'top' for dynamic resource usage reporting ==
  
# ps aux | grep -e "this\|that" | grep -v grep | tr -s " " | cut -d " " -f 2 | xargs kill -9
+
To run top:
  
== Run a command for a specified time using timeout ==
+
$ top
  
$ timeout 3 ping jj5.net
+
See [https://www.thegeekstuff.com/2010/01/15-practical-unix-linux-top-command-examples/ 15 Practical Linux Top Command Examples] for some hints on usage.
  
= Disk management =
+
To see usage for a specific user run e.g.:
  
== Creating a partition table ==
+
$ top -u jj5
  
# parted /dev/xvdf
+
To see full command-line press 'c'.
  
mktable msdos
+
When you're in 'top' you can:
  
== Creating a partition ==
+
* press '1' (one) to toggle CPU aggregation
 +
* press < and > to change the sort column
  
# parted /dev/xvdf
+
== Changing memory reporting in 'top' ==
  
u MiB
+
To run top:
mkpart primary 1 100%
 
  
== Creating an ext4 file-system ==
+
$ top
  
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdf1
+
Press 'E' to switch between top memory units (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.)
  
== Listing disk drives ==
+
Press 'e' to switch between bottom memory units (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.)
  
# fdisk -l
+
Press 'M' to sort by memory utilisation.
  
(That's an L for "list")
+
Press 'm' to switch between various display modes.
  
== Checking available disk space ==
+
== Showing full command-line in 'top' ==
  
$ df -h
+
To see the full command-line for processes run with -c:
  
== Getting disk information ==
+
$ top -c
  
# lsblk
+
== Listing all processes currently running which were started in your current shell session ==
  
And
+
$ ps -fl
  
# cat /proc/partitions
+
== Killing specific processes ==
  
Or the Grand Daddy of them all:
+
# ps aux | grep -e "this\|that" | grep -v grep | tr -s " " | cut -d " " -f 2 | xargs kill -9
  
# lshw -class disk
+
== Run a command for a specified time using timeout ==
  
(Requires the lshw package.)
+
$ timeout 3 ping jj5.net
  
== Getting partition UUID and file-system type ==
+
= Disk management =
  
# blkid
+
== Reporting ext4 file-systems mounted without noatime ==
  
== Checking for SSD vs magnetic disk ==
+
$ cat /proc/mounts | grep ext | grep -v noatime | sort
  
# cat /sys/block/sda/queue/rotational
+
== Creating a partition table ==
  
Will be 0 for SSD and 1 for magnetic.
+
# parted /dev/xvdf
  
== Monitoring a ZFS server ==
+
mktable msdos
  
So some commands I run to keep an eye on my new ZFS servers:
+
== Creating a partition ==
  
  # top
+
  # parted /dev/xvdf
# iotop
 
# nethogs
 
# watch free -h
 
# watch slabtop -o
 
# slabtop
 
# watch cat /proc/meminfo
 
# perf top
 
# watch "df -h | grep -v -e tmpfs -e udev -e by-uuid"
 
# watch zpool iostat -v
 
# zpool iostat -v 2
 
# watch 'zpool list; echo; zfs list'
 
# watch zfs get compressratio -o all
 
# watch cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
 
  
If you have a scrub or resilvering in progress you can report on progress with:
+
u MiB
 +
mkpart primary 1 100%
  
# watch zpool status -v
+
== Creating an ext4 file-system ==
  
You can poke about in internals, e.g.:
+
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdf1
  
# cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
+
== Listing disk drives ==
  
  root@orac:/sys/module/zfs/parameters# tail *
+
  # fdisk -l
  
You can report on property values with e.g.:
+
(That's an L for "list")
  
# zfs get all data
+
== Checking available disk space ==
  
If you want to get funky:
+
$ df -h
 +
 
 +
== Getting disk information ==
 +
 
 +
# lsblk
  
# cd /tmp
+
And
# perf record -ag #(Ctrl+C after ~15 seconds)
 
# perf report --stdio
 
  
You can search for ZFS files like e.g. this:
+
# cat /proc/partitions
  
root@orac:/# find / -name '*zfs*' -or -name '*zpool*'
+
Or the Grand Daddy of them all:
  
You can report history of a zpool:
+
# lshw -class disk
  
# zpool history $poolname
+
(Requires the lshw package.)
  
You can get a report on the dedup tables:
+
== Getting partition UUID and file-system type ==
  
  # zpool status -D $poolname
+
  # blkid
  
Or more detailed dedup table info:
+
== Checking for SSD vs magnetic disk ==
  
  # zdb -DDD $poolname
+
  # cat /sys/block/sda/queue/rotational
  
Note in the output see [https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/405700 here] for details, basically:
+
Will be 0 for SSD and 1 for magnetic.
  
{|class="wikitable"
+
== Monitoring a ZFS server ==
! Abbr  !! Description
 
|-
 
| LSIZE  || logical size (in memory)
 
|-
 
| PSIZE  || physical size
 
|-
 
| DSIZE  || size on disk
 
|-
 
| refcnt || reference count
 
|}
 
  
== Measure data throughput ==
+
So some commands I run to keep an eye on my new ZFS servers:
  
Use the 'pv' command from the 'pv' package, e.g.:
+
# top
 +
# iotop
 +
# nethogs
 +
# watch free -h
 +
# watch slabtop -o
 +
# slabtop
 +
# watch cat /proc/meminfo
 +
# perf top
 +
# watch "df -h | grep -v -e tmpfs -e udev -e by-uuid"
 +
# watch zpool iostat -v
 +
# zpool iostat -v 2
 +
# watch 'zpool list; echo; zfs list'
 +
# watch zfs get compressratio -o all
 +
# watch cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
  
# cat /dev/sda | pv | cat > /dev/null
+
If you have a scrub or resilvering in progress you can report on progress with:
  
Or for ZFS:
+
# watch zpool status -v
  
# zfs send data/example | pv | cat > /dev/null
+
You can poke about in internals, e.g.:
  
== Using Smartctl, Smartd and Hddtemp on Debian ==
+
# cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
  
For notes on using smartctl see [https://www.lisenet.com/2014/using-smartctl-smartd-and-hddtemp-on-debian/ Using Smartctl, Smartd and Hddtemp on Debian].
+
root@orac:/sys/module/zfs/parameters# tail *
  
== Report hard disk usage ==
+
You can report on property values with e.g.:
  
So you might want to know how much data a process reads or writes to a hard disk. You can monitor process total disk utilisation with the 'iotop' command. Run 'iotop' and then press 'a' for --accumulated.
+
# zfs get all data
  
== Report hard disk temperatures ==
+
If you want to get funky:
  
E.g.
+
# cd /tmp
 +
# perf record -ag #(Ctrl+C after ~15 seconds)
 +
# perf report --stdio
  
# hddtemp /dev/sd[a-e]
+
You can search for ZFS files like e.g. this:
  
== Burning an ISO image to USB on Mac ==
+
root@orac:/# find / -name '*zfs*' -or -name '*zpool*'
  
First insert your USB key and find the appropriate disk with:
+
You can report history of a zpool:
  
  # diskutil list
+
  # zpool history $poolname
  
Then unmount it with:
+
You can get a report on the dedup tables:
  
  # diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk4
+
  # zpool status -D $poolname
  
Then copy ISO image with 'dd':
+
Or more detailed dedup table info:
  
  # dd if=ubuntu-18.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso of=/dev/disk4
+
  # zdb -DDD $poolname
  
You can get dd to report progress by sending it the SIGINFO signal:
+
Note in the output see [https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/405700 here] for details, basically:
  
  # kill -s info 12345
+
{|class="wikitable"
 
+
! Abbr  !! Description
== Listing all ext4 file systems ==
+
|-
 +
| LSIZE  || logical size (in memory)
 +
|-
 +
| PSIZE || physical size
 +
|-
 +
| DSIZE  || size on disk
 +
|-
 +
| refcnt || reference count
 +
|}
  
To see a list only of the mounted ext4 file systems:
+
== How to tell if zfs scrub is running ==
  
# df -t ext4
+
You can get the status from the "scan:" line from:
  
= Monitoring disk I/O =
+
$ zpool status
  
There's an app for that! iotop.
+
== Measure data throughput ==
  
== Using iotop, top for disks ==
+
Use the 'pv' command from the 'pv' package, e.g.:
  
  # iotop -oPa
+
  # cat /dev/sda | pv | cat > /dev/null
  
== Monitor disk I/O for performance issues ==
+
Or for ZFS:
  
  # watch iostat
+
  # zfs send data/example | pv | cat > /dev/null
  
Or e.g.
+
== Using Smartctl, Smartd and Hddtemp on Debian ==
  
# watch iostat -xd /dev/sd[abc]
+
For notes on using smartctl see [https://www.lisenet.com/2014/using-smartctl-smartd-and-hddtemp-on-debian/ Using Smartctl, Smartd and Hddtemp on Debian].
  
Or use groupings like this command for 'tact':
+
== Report hard disk usage ==
  
$ iostat -g system nvme0n1 -g fast sda sdb -g data sdc sdd -d 2
+
So you might want to know how much data a process reads or writes to a hard disk. You can monitor process total disk utilisation with the 'iotop' command. Run 'iotop' and then press 'a' for --accumulated.
  
= Monitoring a system =
+
== Report hard disk temperatures ==
  
== Simple ZFS monitoring ==
+
E.g.
  
  # watch iostat
+
  # hddtemp /dev/sd[a-e]
# iotop
 
# zpool iostat -v 5
 
# watch 'hddtemp /dev/sd[a-e]; echo; zpool list; echo; zfs list'
 
# nethogs
 
# top
 
  
= Monitoring temperature =
+
== Burning an ISO image to USB on Mac ==
  
See [https://askubuntu.com/a/854029 temperature without third-party apps] for:
+
First insert your USB key and find the appropriate disk with:
  
  $ cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/temp
+
  # diskutil list
  
and:
+
Then unmount it with:
  
  $ paste <(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/type) <(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/temp) | column -s $'\t' -t | sed 's/\(.\)..$/.\1°C/'
+
  # diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk4
  
== Monitoring CPU temperature ==
+
Then copy ISO image with 'dd':
  
  $ watch sensors
+
  # dd if=ubuntu-18.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso of=/dev/disk4
  
== Monitoring HDD temperature ==
+
You can get dd to report progress by sending it the SIGINFO signal:
  
For e.g. SATA drives sda to sdd:
+
# kill -s info 12345
  
# watch hddtemp /dev/sd[a-d]
+
== Listing all ext4 file systems ==
  
= ZFS =
+
To see a list only of the mounted ext4 file systems:
  
== How can I determine the current size of the ARC in ZFS, and how does the ARC relate to free or cache memory? ==
+
# df -t ext4
  
See [https://superuser.com/q/1137416 How can I determine the current size of the ARC in ZFS, and how does the ARC relate to free or cache memory?]
+
== Report hierarchical file system mount points and mount options ==
  
  $ cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
+
  $ findmnt
  
Then:
+
== Report the mount point for the current working directory ==
  
  c is the target size of the ARC in bytes
+
  $ findmnt "$PWD"
c_max is the maximum size of the ARC in bytes
 
size is the current size of the ARC in bytes
 
  
= File management =
+
= Monitoring disk I/O =
  
== Listing files by size ==
+
There's an app for that! iotop.
  
Use capital S for Size:
+
== Using iotop, top for disks ==
  
  $ ls -S
+
  # iotop -oPa
  
== Listing only directories ==
+
== Monitor disk I/O for performance issues ==
  
  $ ls -l | egrep '^d'
+
  # watch iostat
  
== Listing only files ==
+
Or e.g.
  
  $ ls -l | egrep -v '^d'
+
  # watch iostat -xd /dev/sd[abc]
  
== Listing hidden files ==
+
Or use groupings like this command for 'tact':
  
  $ ls -al .[!.]*
+
  $ iostat -g system nvme0n1 -g fast sda sdb -g data sdc sdd -d 2
  
== Creating a symbolic link ==
+
= Monitoring a system =
  
$ ln -s /path/to/target link-name
+
== Simple ZFS monitoring ==
  
== Creating a hard-link ==
+
# watch iostat
 
+
# iotop
  $ ln /path/to/target file-name
+
# zpool iostat -v 5
 +
  # watch 'hddtemp /dev/sd[a-e]; echo; zpool list; echo; zfs list'
 +
# nethogs
 +
# top
 +
 
 +
= Monitoring temperature =
  
== Changing the owner of a file ==
+
See [https://askubuntu.com/a/854029 temperature without third-party apps] for:
  
  $ chown user:group <files>
+
  $ cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/temp
  
E.g.
+
and:
  
  $ chown jj5:staff README
+
  $ paste <(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/type) <(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/temp) | column -s $'\t' -t | sed 's/\(.\)..$/.\1°C/'
$ chown root:root *
 
  
To apply recursively into sub-directories use -R,
+
== Monitoring CPU temperature ==
  
  $ chown -R root:root /etc/*
+
  $ watch sensors
  
== Changing file permissions ==
+
== Monitoring HDD temperature ==
  
{|class="wikitable"
+
For e.g. SATA drives sda to sdd:
|+ Object codes
 
! User !! Group !! Other
 
|-
 
| u    || g     || o
 
|}
 
  
{|class="wikitable"
+
# watch hddtemp /dev/sd[a-d]
|+ Permission codes
 
! Read !! Write !! Exectue
 
|-
 
| r    || w    || x
 
|-
 
| 4    || 2    || 1
 
|}
 
  
{|class="wikitable"
+
= ZFS =
|+ Numeric codes
 
! 0
 
| None
 
|-
 
! 1
 
| Execute
 
|-
 
! 2
 
| Write
 
|-
 
! 3
 
| Write, Execute
 
|-
 
! 4
 
| Read
 
|-
 
! 5
 
| Read, Execute
 
|-
 
! 6
 
| Read, Write
 
|-
 
! 7
 
| Read, Write, Execute
 
|}
 
  
See [http://catcode.com/teachmod/numeric2.html Numeric Mode in Action].
+
== How can I determine the current size of the ARC in ZFS, and how does the ARC relate to free or cache memory? ==
  
$ chmod <user numeric code><group numeric code><other numeric code> <files>
+
See [https://superuser.com/q/1137416 How can I determine the current size of the ARC in ZFS, and how does the ARC relate to free or cache memory?]
$ chmod <object codes>+|-<permission codes> <files>
 
  
E.g.
+
$ cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
  
$ chmod 600 my-private-file
+
Then:
$ chmod go-rwx my-private-file
 
$ chmod u+rw my-private-file
 
$ chmod +x my-script
 
  
== Updating config files ==
+
c is the target size of the ARC in bytes
 +
c_max is the maximum size of the ARC in bytes
 +
size is the current size of the ARC in bytes
  
If you get given a new config file called new.conf and you want to integrate it with your old config file old.conf then:
+
== Stopping a ZFS scrub in progress ==
  
  $ cp old.conf updated.conf
+
  # zpool scrub -s $pool
$ merge -A updated.conf new.conf old.conf
 
  
Then go through and edit updated.conf resolving all the merge errors, picking and choosing what to update and what to keep. When you're done copy updated.conf to old.conf so it becomes the new config file.
+
e.g. for the 'data' pool:
  
The merge program is a part of the RCS package. If you don't have it:
+
# zpool scrub -s data
  
$ sudo apt-get install rcs
+
= File management =
  
== Listing open files ==
+
== Listing files by size ==
  
Use lsof to list open files. E.g.:
+
Use capital S for Size:
  
  # lsof
+
  $ ls -S
  
See man lsof for options.
+
== Listing only directories ==
  
== List permissions on a whole directory path ==
+
$ ls -l | egrep '^d'
  
E.g.:
+
== Listing only files ==
  
  $ namei -om /home/jj5/workspace
+
  $ ls -l | egrep -v '^d'
  
Outputs:
+
== Listing hidden files ==
  
  f: /home/jj5/workspace/
+
  $ ls -al .[!.]*
  drwxr-xr-x root root /
 
  drwxr-xr-x root root home
 
  drwxr-xr-x jj5  jj5  jj5
 
  drwxr-xr-x jj5  jj5  workspace
 
  
== Counting non-blank lines in a file ==
+
== Creating a symbolic link ==
  
E.g.:
+
$ ln -s /path/to/target link-name
  
$ cat foo.c | sed '/^\s*$/d' | wc -l
+
== Creating a hard-link ==
  
== Cloning one directory to another with rsync ==
+
$ ln /path/to/target file-name
  
E.g.:
+
== Changing the owner of a file ==
  
rsync --acls --xattrs --stats --human-readable --recursive --del --force --times --links --hard-links --executability --numeric-ids --owner --group --perms --sparse --compress-level=0 /data/source/ hostname:/data/target/
+
$ chown user:group <files>
  
== Counting number of files in current directory and all subdirectories ==
+
E.g.
  
  $ ls -AlhR . | egrep '^-' | wc -l
+
  $ chown jj5:staff README
 +
$ chown root:root *
  
== Counting number of directories in current directory and all subdirectories ==
+
To apply recursively into sub-directories use -R,
  
  $ ls -AlhR . | egrep '^d' | wc -l
+
  $ chown -R root:root /etc/*
  
== Getting the status of a 'dd' process ==
+
== Changing file permissions ==
  
First figure out the 'dd' process number, with e.g. 'top' or 'ps aux | grep dd'
+
{|class="wikitable"
 +
|+ Object codes
 +
! User !! Group !! Other
 +
|-
 +
| u    || g     || o
 +
|}
  
Then send the dd process the SIGINFO signal, which for dd process 40947 would be:
+
{|class="wikitable"
 +
|+ Permission codes
 +
! Read !! Write !! Exectue
 +
|-
 +
| r    || w    || x
 +
|-
 +
| 4    || 2    || 1
 +
|}
  
# kill -s info 40947
+
{|class="wikitable"
 
+
|+ Numeric codes
The dd process will report its status in the terminal its running in.
+
! 0
 
+
| None
== Transferring a large file via FAT32 file system ==
+
|-
 
+
! 1
So the maximum file size supported by a FAT32 file system (commonly used on USB keys) is 4 GB per file. If you have a file larger than 4 GB you can split it into parts and then reassemble the parts once transferred:
+
| Execute
 
+
|-
$ split -b 4000m input.tgz input.tgz-parts-
+
! 2
 +
| Write
 +
|-
 +
! 3
 +
| Write, Execute
 +
|-
 +
! 4
 +
| Read
 +
|-
 +
! 5
 +
| Read, Execute
 +
|-
 +
! 6
 +
| Read, Write
 +
|-
 +
! 7
 +
| Read, Write, Execute
 +
|}
  
Then copy the small files and reassemble:
+
See [http://catcode.com/teachmod/numeric2.html Numeric Mode in Action].
  
  $ cat input.tgz-parts-* > output.tgz
+
  $ chmod <user numeric code><group numeric code><other numeric code> <files>
 +
$ chmod <object codes>+|-<permission codes> <files>
  
= NFS =
+
E.g.
  
== List NFS shares ==
+
$ chmod 600 my-private-file
 +
$ chmod go-rwx my-private-file
 +
$ chmod u+rw my-private-file
 +
$ chmod +x my-script
  
To e.g. show NFS shares on 'love':
+
== Updating config files ==
  
$ showmount -e love
+
If you get given a new config file called new.conf and you want to integrate it with your old config file old.conf then:
  
= Compression =
+
$ cp old.conf updated.conf
 +
$ merge -A updated.conf new.conf old.conf
  
== How to use pigz with tar ==
+
Then go through and edit updated.conf resolving all the merge errors, picking and choosing what to update and what to keep. When you're done copy updated.conf to old.conf so it becomes the new config file.
  
See [https://stackoverflow.com/a/39904353 here]:
+
The merge program is a part of the RCS package. If you don't have it:
  
  $ tar cf - paths-to-archive | pigz --best -p 8 > archive.tgz
+
  $ sudo apt-get install rcs
  
Note: don't use --best unless you're being stingy, running without it will be much faster.
+
== Listing open files ==
  
== Best compression with tar ==
+
Use lsof to list open files. E.g.:
  
From [https://superuser.com/questions/514260/how-to-obtain-maximum-compression-with-tar-gz#544643 here]:
+
# lsof
  
export GZIP=-9
+
See man lsof for options.
tar cvzf file.tar.gz /path/to/directory
 
  
or
+
== List permissions on a whole directory path ==
  
env GZIP=-9 tar cvzf file.tar.gz /path/to/directory
+
E.g.:
  
== Best parallel compression with pigz ==
+
$ namei -om /home/jj5/workspace
  
$ pigz --best
+
Outputs:
  
== Best parallel compression with xz ==
+
f: /home/jj5/workspace/
 
+
  drwxr-xr-x root root /
  $ xz -9e -T 0
+
  drwxr-xr-x root root home
 +
  drwxr-xr-x jj5  jj5 jj5
 +
  drwxr-xr-x jj5  jj5  workspace
  
== Reporting compression ratios with xz ==
+
== Counting non-blank lines in a file ==
  
e.g.
+
E.g.:
  
  root@love:/data/image/archive# xz -l *
+
  $ cat foo.c | sed '/^\s*$/d' | wc -l
Strms  Blocks  Compressed Uncompressed  Ratio  Check  Filename
 
    1      3    372.2 MiB    442.3 MiB  0.841  CRC64  1999.txz
 
    1      29  5,281.3 MiB  5,542.5 MiB  0.953  CRC64  2001.txz
 
    1      11  1,364.3 MiB  2,084.3 MiB  0.655  CRC64  2002.txz
 
    1      9    568.5 MiB  1,660.2 MiB  0.342  CRC64  2003.txz
 
    1    639    66.8 GiB    119.6 GiB  0.558  CRC64  2004.txz
 
    1    313    12.7 GiB    58.6 GiB  0.217  CRC64  2005.txz
 
    1    414    35.0 GiB    77.4 GiB  0.452  CRC64  2006.txz
 
    1    485    44.5 GiB    90.9 GiB  0.490  CRC64  2007.txz
 
    1  1,690    150.0 GiB    316.8 GiB  0.473  CRC64  2008.txz
 
    1      3    457.9 MiB    526.0 MiB  0.871  CRC64  2009.txz
 
    1    168    27.3 GiB    31.4 GiB  0.868  CRC64  2010.txz
 
    1      4    477.1 MiB    702.8 MiB  0.679  CRC64  2011.txz
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
    12  3,768    344.6 GiB    705.5 GiB  0.488  CRC64  12 files
 
  
= Symbolic-link management =
+
== Cloning one directory to another with rsync ==
  
== Data used by sym-linked files:
+
E.g.:
  
This will de-reference the sym-links in the current directory and tell you how much data the files pointed to by the sym-links are using:
+
rsync --acls --xattrs --stats --human-readable --recursive --del --force --times --links --hard-links --executability --numeric-ids --owner --group --perms --sparse --compress-level=0 /data/source/ hostname:/data/target/
  
jj5@tact:/data/backup/unity/latest$ du -hD * | sort -h
+
== Counting number of files in current directory and all subdirectories ==
  
= File searching =
+
$ ls -AlhR . | egrep '^-' | wc -l
  
== Finding a file with a particular name ==
+
== Counting number of directories in current directory and all subdirectories ==
  
  $ find -iname "*some-part-of-the-file-name*"
+
  $ ls -AlhR . | egrep '^d' | wc -l
  
Will start searching from the current directory, so maybe
+
== Getting the status of a 'dd' process ==
  
$ cd /
+
First figure out the 'dd' process number, with e.g. 'top' or 'ps aux | grep dd'
  
first. For a case-sensitive search:
+
Then send the dd process the SIGINFO signal, which for dd process 40947 would be:
  
  $ find -name "*eXaCT CaSE*"
+
  # kill -s info 40947
  
== Finding a file with particular content ==
+
The dd process will report its status in the terminal its running in.
  
To search in /etc/ for a file with particular content:
+
== Transferring a large file via FAT32 file system ==
  
$ grep -R "search-string" /etc/*
+
So the maximum file size supported by a FAT32 file system (commonly used on USB keys) is 4 GB per file. If you have a file larger than 4 GB you can split it into parts and then reassemble the parts once transferred:
  
To search the current directory for *.cs files containing the word "Up":
+
$ split -b 4000m input.tgz input.tgz-parts-
  
$ find . -name '*.cs' -exec grep --color=auto -H Up {} \;
+
Then copy the small files and reassemble:
  
== Finding a list of files with particular content ==
+
$ cat input.tgz-parts-* > output.tgz
  
E.g. to find all the files with the word 'creativity':
+
== Find the difference between two directories ==
  
  $ grep -R creativity . | sed 's/:/ /' | awk '{ print $1 }' | sort | uniq
+
  $ diif -qr $DIR_A $DIR_B
  
== Using the locate command to find files ==
+
= NFS =
  
$ locate part-of-filename
+
== List NFS shares ==
  
E.g.
+
To e.g. show NFS shares on 'love':
  
  $ locate texvc
+
  $ showmount -e love
  
== Updating locate command's database ==
+
= Compression =
  
# updatedb
+
== How to use pigz with tar ==
  
== Select a random line from a text file ==
+
See [https://stackoverflow.com/a/39904353 here]:
  
  $ shuf -n 1 input.txt
+
  $ tar cf - paths-to-archive | pigz --best -p 8 > archive.tgz
  
== Extra context for grep ==
+
Note: don't use --best unless you're being stingy, running without it will be much faster.
  
If you need to show extra lines before or after your grep results use -B NUM to set how many lines before the match and -A NUM for the number of lines after the match:
+
Also from [https://stackoverflow.com/a/50586833 here]:
  
$ grep -B 3 -A 1 ...
+
Fast pack:
  
= Job control =
+
tar -I 'pigz --fast' -cf my.tar.gz whatver
  
== Stopping a running process ==
+
Best pack:
  
Press Ctrl+Z to stop a running process.
+
tar -I 'pigz --best' -cf my.tar.gz whatver
  
== Listing current jobs and their status ==
+
Fast unpack:
  
  $ jobs
+
  tar -I pigz -xf my.tar.gz
  
== Resuming a stopped job in the backgroud ==
+
== Best compression with tar ==
  
To resume a stopped process in the background
+
From [https://superuser.com/questions/514260/how-to-obtain-maximum-compression-with-tar-gz#544643 here]:
  
  $ bg %1
+
  export GZIP=-9
 +
tar cvzf file.tar.gz /path/to/directory
  
where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').
+
or
  
== Resuming a stopped job in the foreground ==
+
env GZIP=-9 tar cvzf file.tar.gz /path/to/directory
  
To resume a stopped process in the foreground
+
== Best parallel compression with pigz ==
  
  $ fg %1
+
  $ pigz --best
  
where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').
+
== Best parallel compression with xz ==
  
== Killing a stopped job ==
+
$ xz -9e -T 0
  
To kill a job
+
== Reporting compression ratios with xz ==
  
$ kill %1
+
e.g.
  
where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').
+
root@love:/data/image/archive# xz -l *
 +
Strms  Blocks  Compressed Uncompressed  Ratio  Check  Filename
 +
    1       3    372.2 MiB    442.3 MiB  0.841  CRC64  1999.txz
 +
    1      29  5,281.3 MiB  5,542.5 MiB  0.953  CRC64  2001.txz
 +
    1      11  1,364.3 MiB  2,084.3 MiB  0.655  CRC64  2002.txz
 +
    1      9    568.5 MiB  1,660.2 MiB  0.342  CRC64  2003.txz
 +
    1    639    66.8 GiB    119.6 GiB  0.558  CRC64  2004.txz
 +
    1    313    12.7 GiB    58.6 GiB  0.217  CRC64  2005.txz
 +
    1    414    35.0 GiB    77.4 GiB  0.452  CRC64  2006.txz
 +
    1    485    44.5 GiB    90.9 GiB  0.490  CRC64  2007.txz
 +
    1  1,690    150.0 GiB    316.8 GiB  0.473  CRC64  2008.txz
 +
    1      3    457.9 MiB    526.0 MiB  0.871  CRC64  2009.txz
 +
    1    168    27.3 GiB    31.4 GiB  0.868  CRC64  2010.txz
 +
    1      4    477.1 MiB    702.8 MiB  0.679  CRC64  2011.txz
 +
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
    12  3,768    344.6 GiB    705.5 GiB  0.488  CRC64  12 files
  
== Periodically run a program and watch its output ==
+
= Symbolic-link management =
  
$ watch /your/command
+
== Data used by sym-linked files:
  
= Debian/Ubuntu package management =
+
This will de-reference the sym-links in the current directory and tell you how much data the files pointed to by the sym-links are using:
  
Also see [https://wiki.debian.org/WhereIsIt Where "is" it?] on the Debian Wiki.
+
jj5@tact:/data/backup/unity/latest$ du -hD * | sort -h
  
== configuring debconf ==
+
= File searching =
  
# dpkg-reconfigure debconf
+
== Finding a file with a particular name ==
  
Set priority to low to get asked detailed questions.
+
$ find -iname "*some-part-of-the-file-name*"
  
== Showing list of installed packages ==
+
Will start searching from the current directory, so maybe
  
  # dpkg --get-selections
+
  $ cd /
  
== Searching for installed package ==
+
first. For a case-sensitive search:
  
  # dpkg --get-selections | grep package-name
+
  $ find -name "*eXaCT CaSE*"
  
or
+
== Finding a file with particular content ==
  
# aptitude search package-name
+
To search in /etc/ for a file with particular content:
  
== Showing which files are installed as part of a package ==
+
$ grep -R "search-string" /etc/*
  
# dpkg -L package-name
+
To search the current directory for *.cs files containing the word "Up":
  
== Installing a package ==
+
$ find . -name '*.cs' -exec grep --color=auto -H Up {} \;
  
# apt-get install package-name
+
== Finding a list of files with particular content ==
  
== Uninstalling a package ==
+
E.g. to find all the files with the word 'creativity':
  
  # apt-get remove package-name
+
  $ grep -R creativity . | sed 's/:/ /' | awk '{ print $1 }' | sort | uniq
  
== Showing system architecture ==
+
== Using the locate command to find files ==
  
  $ dpkg --print-architecture
+
  $ locate part-of-filename
  
== Showing which package a file belongs to ==
+
E.g.
  
  $ which echo
+
  $ locate texvc
/bin/echo
 
$ dpkg -S /bin/echo
 
coreutils: /bin/echo
 
$ dpkg -l | grep coreutils
 
ii  coreutils                        6.10-6                  The GNU core utilities
 
  
== Showing package information ==
+
== Updating locate command's database ==
  
  $ apt-cache showpkg coreutils
+
  # updatedb
  
Or for even more information:
+
== Select a random line from a text file ==
  
  $ apt-cache show coreutils
+
  $ shuf -n 1 input.txt
  
== List all installed packages with package version info ==
+
== Extra context for grep ==
  
dpkg-query -l
+
If you need to show extra lines before or after your grep results use -B NUM to set how many lines before the match and -A NUM for the number of lines after the match:
  
== Reporting which version of a package is installed ==
+
$ grep -B 3 -A 1 ...
  
$ dpkg -l | grep package-name
+
= Job control =
  
E.g.:
+
== Stopping a running process ==
  
root@hope:~/letsencrypt# dpkg -l | grep augeas
+
Press Ctrl+Z to stop a running process.
ii  augeas-lenses                  0.7.0-1ubuntu1                Set of lenses needed by libaugeas0 to parse
 
ii  libaugeas0                      0.7.0-1ubuntu1                The augeas configuration editing library and
 
  
== Comprehensive upgrade ==
+
== Listing current jobs and their status ==
 +
 
 +
$ jobs
 +
 
 +
== Resuming a stopped job in the backgroud ==
 +
 
 +
To resume a stopped process in the background
  
Try the following:
+
$ bg %1
  
# apt-get update
+
where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').
# apt-get dist-upgrade
 
# apt-get autoremove
 
# apt-get remove $(deborphan)
 
# update-flashplugin-nonfree --install
 
  
== Searching all available packages ==
+
== Resuming a stopped job in the foreground ==
  
$ apt-cache search . | sort -d | less
+
To resume a stopped process in the foreground
  
= Networking =
+
$ fg %1
  
== net-tools vs iproute2 ==
+
where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').
  
The older 'net-tools' package has been replaced with 'iproute2' e.g. in [https://www.debian.org/releases/stretch/amd64/release-notes/ch-information.en.html#iproute2 stretch].
+
== Killing a stopped job ==
  
{|class="wikitable"
+
To kill a job
! legacy net-tools commands
 
! iproute2 replacement commands
 
|-
 
| arp      || ip n (ip neighbor)
 
|-
 
| ifconfig || ip a (ip addr), ip link, ip -s (ip -stats)
 
|-
 
| iptunnel || ip tunnel
 
|-
 
| iwconfig || iw
 
|-
 
| nameif  || ip link, ifrename
 
|-
 
| netstat  || ss, ip route (for netstat-r), ip -s link (for netstat -i), ip maddr (for netstat-g)
 
|-
 
| route    || ip r (ip route)
 
|}
 
  
== Restart networking ==
+
$ kill %1
  
For servers:
+
where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').
  
# service networking restart
+
== Periodically run a program and watch its output ==
  
For desktops:
+
$ watch /your/command
  
# service network-manager restart
+
= Debian/Ubuntu package management =
  
== Pinging with particular packet size ==
+
Also see [https://wiki.debian.org/WhereIsIt Where "is" it?] on the Debian Wiki.
  
$ ping -M do -s <packet size in bytes> <host>
+
== configuring debconf ==
  
E.g.
+
# dpkg-reconfigure debconf
  
$ ping -M do -s 1400 charity.progclub.org
+
Set priority to low to get asked detailed questions.
  
== Setting [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximum_segment_size MSS] for a particular IP address on a particular interface ==
+
== Showing list of installed packages ==
  
  # ip route add <host> dev <interface> advmss <packet size>
+
  # dpkg --get-selections
  
E.g.
+
== Searching for installed package ==
  
  # ip route add 10.0.0.1 dev eth0 advmss 1400
+
  # dpkg --get-selections | grep package-name
  
== Dropping configured MMS for a particular IP address ==
+
or
  
  # ip route flush <host>
+
  # aptitude search package-name
  
E.g.
+
== Showing which files are installed as part of a package ==
  
  # ip route flush 10.0.0.1
+
  # dpkg -L package-name
  
== Listing open ports and socket information ==
+
== Installing a package ==
  
Including which process is listening on which port.
+
# apt-get install package-name
  
# netstat -tulpn
+
== Uninstalling a package ==
  
Or use the 'ss' command:
+
# apt-get remove package-name
  
# ss -s
+
== Showing system architecture ==
# ss -l
 
# ss -pl
 
# ss -o state established '( dport = :smtp or sport = :smtp )'
 
  
== Listing open IPv4 connections ==
+
$ dpkg --print-architecture
  
# lsof -Pnl +M -i4
+
== Showing which package a file belongs to ==
  
You might need to install the lsof package:
+
$ which echo
 +
/bin/echo
 +
$ dpkg -S /bin/echo
 +
coreutils: /bin/echo
 +
$ dpkg -l | grep coreutils
 +
ii  coreutils                        6.10-6                  The GNU core utilities
  
# apt-get install lsof
+
== Showing package information ==
  
== Query for DNS MX record ==
+
$ apt-cache showpkg coreutils
  
$ nslookup
+
Or for even more information:
> server 127.0.0.1
 
> set q=mx
 
> mail.blackbrick.com
 
  
== Query for DNS SOA record ==
+
$ apt-cache show coreutils
  
$ dig @ns2.staticmagic.net -t SOA staticmagic.net
+
== List all installed packages with package version info ==
  
== Using nmap to list open ports on remote host ==
+
dpkg-query -l
  
To check the 1,000 most common ports:
+
== Reporting which version of a package is installed ==
  
  # nmap server.example.com
+
  $ dpkg -l | grep package-name
  
Or for a specific port range (e.g. 101 to 102):
+
E.g.:
  
  # nmap -p 101-102 server.example.com
+
  root@hope:~/letsencrypt# dpkg -l | grep augeas
 +
ii  augeas-lenses                  0.7.0-1ubuntu1                Set of lenses needed by libaugeas0 to parse
 +
ii  libaugeas0                      0.7.0-1ubuntu1                The augeas configuration editing library and
  
Or for all ports (1 to 65,535):
+
== Comprehensive upgrade ==
  
# nmap -p- server.example.com
+
Try the following:
  
== Network monitoring ==
+
# apt-get update
 +
# apt-get dist-upgrade
 +
# apt-get autoremove
 +
# apt-get remove $(deborphan)
 +
# update-flashplugin-nonfree --install
  
See [http://www.binarytides.com/linux-commands-monitor-network/ here] for details. Basically:
+
== Searching all available packages ==
  
# Overall bandwidth: nload, bmon, slurm, bwm-ng, cbm, speedometer, netload
+
$ apt-cache search . | sort -d | less
# Overall bandwidth (batch style output): vnstat, ifstat, dstat, collectl
 
# Bandwidth per socket connection: iftop, iptraf, tcptrack, pktstat, netwatch, trafshow
 
# Bandwidth per process: nethogs
 
  
== nload ==
+
== Reporting unattended upgrades status ==
  
You can watch network traffic in real-time with nload:
+
See [https://askubuntu.com/questions/934807/unattended-upgrades-status#934863 here] for more info.
  
  # nload -u M
+
  # tail -f /var/log/unattended-upgrades/unattended-upgrades.log
  
== Reporting network (NIC) speed ==
+
== Searching for Debian packages and versions ==
  
From [https://askubuntu.com/questions/431911/how-can-i-verify-the-speed-of-my-nic-in-ubuntu#431912 here]:
+
* [https://packages.debian.org/search?keywords=dnscrypt-proxy Debian package search]
  
# dmesg | grep eth0
+
= Networking =
# mii-tool -v eth0
 
# ethtool eth0
 
  
Note: use ifconfig to get device name.
+
== Determining throughput between two hosts ==
  
== Path MTU discovery ==
+
# apt install iperf3
  
To do a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Path_MTU_Discovery Path MTU Discovery], from the iputils-tracepath package:
+
On the server:
  
  # tracepath host.example.com
+
  # iperf3 -s
  
== Listing available Ethernet devices ==
+
On the client:
  
To see a list of NICs available on the host:
+
# iperf3 -c $SERVER_IP
  
$ cat /proc/net/dev
+
For more info see: [https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/how-to-test-the-network-speedthroughput-between-two-linux-servers/ How to test the network speed/throughput between two Linux servers].
  
Also
+
== net-tools vs iproute2 ==
  
$ ip link
+
The older 'net-tools' package has been replaced with 'iproute2' e.g. in [https://www.debian.org/releases/stretch/amd64/release-notes/ch-information.en.html#iproute2 stretch].
  
== 59 Linux Networking commands and scripts ==
+
{|class="wikitable"
 +
! legacy net-tools commands
 +
! iproute2 replacement commands
 +
|-
 +
| arp      || ip n (ip neighbor)
 +
|-
 +
| ifconfig || ip a (ip addr), ip link, ip -s (ip -stats)
 +
|-
 +
| iptunnel || ip tunnel
 +
|-
 +
| iwconfig || iw
 +
|-
 +
| nameif  || ip link, ifrename
 +
|-
 +
| netstat  || ss, ip route (for netstat-r), ip -s link (for netstat -i), ip maddr (for netstat-g)
 +
|-
 +
| route    || ip r (ip route)
 +
|}
  
See [https://haydenjames.io/linux-networking-commands-scripts/ 59 Linux Networking commands and scripts].
+
== Restart networking ==
  
== Links ==
+
For servers:
  
* [http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/linux-unix-open-ports/ HowTo: UNIX / Linux Open TCP / UDP Ports]
+
# service networking restart
  
= IPTables =
+
For desktops:
  
== Applying firewall rules ==
+
# service network-manager restart
  
For configuration info see [http://articles.slicehost.com/2008/4/25/ubuntu-hardy-setup-page-1 this article].
+
== Pinging with particular packet size ==
  
  $ sudo vim /etc/iptables.test.rules
+
  $ ping -M do -s <packet size in bytes> <host>
$ sudo /sbin/iptables -F
 
$ sudo /sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.test.rules
 
$ sudo iptables -L
 
$ sudo -s
 
# iptables-save > /etc/iptables.up.rules
 
# exit
 
  
= ufw =
+
E.g.
  
== Denying hosts with ufw ==
+
$ ping -M do -s 1400 charity.progclub.org
  
See [[Admin_reference#Denying_hosts_with_UFW|denying hosts with ufw]].
+
== Setting [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximum_segment_size MSS] for a particular IP address on a particular interface ==
  
= Bind9 =
+
# ip route add <host> dev <interface> advmss <packet size>
  
== Viewing Bind9 querylog ==
+
E.g.
  
  $ sudo rndc querylog
+
  # ip route add 10.0.0.1 dev eth0 advmss 1400
$ tail -f /var/log/syslog
 
  
= IPSec =
+
== Dropping configured MMS for a particular IP address ==
  
== Disabling IPSec ==
+
# ip route flush <host>
  
# setkey -FP
+
E.g.
  
= OpenSSL =
+
# ip route flush 10.0.0.1
  
== Debugging IMAPS with OpenSSL ==
+
== Listing open ports and socket information ==
  
# openssl s_client -connect localhost:993
+
Including which process is listening on which port.
> a1 LOGIN username@host password
 
> a2 LOGOUT
 
  
== Debugging HTTPS with OpenSSL ==
+
# netstat -tulpn
  
$ openssl s_client -connect www.example.com:443
+
Or use the 'ss' command:
GET /example.html HTTP/1.1
 
host: www.example.com
 
  
== Links ==
+
# ss -s
 +
# ss -l
 +
# ss -pl
 +
# ss -o state established '( dport = :smtp or sport = :smtp )'
  
* [http://www.madboa.com/geek/openssl/ OpenSSL Command-Line HOWTO]
+
== Listing open IPv4 connections ==
  
= Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) =
+
# lsof -Pnl +M -i4
  
== Links ==
+
You might need to install the lsof package:
  
* [http://www.centos.org/docs/5/html/Deployment_Guide-en-US/ch-pam.html 42.4. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)]
+
# apt-get install lsof
  
= SSH =
+
== Query for DNS MX record ==
  
== Configuring SSH key login ==
+
$ nslookup
 +
> server 127.0.0.1
 +
> set q=mx
 +
> mail.blackbrick.com
  
On the client machine generate a key-pair (if necessary, check for existing ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub):
+
== Query for DNS SOA record ==
  
  $ ssh-keygen -t rsa
+
  $ dig @ns2.staticmagic.net -t SOA staticmagic.net
  
Copy the public key from the client to the server:
+
== Using nmap to list open ports on remote host ==
  
  $ scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub user@example.org:
+
To check the 1,000 most common ports:
 +
 
 +
  # nmap server.example.com
  
Configure the authorized keys on the server:
+
Or for a specific port range (e.g. 101 to 102):
  
  $ ssh user@example.org
+
  # nmap -p 101-102 server.example.com
$ mkdir ~/.ssh
 
$ chmod go-w .ssh
 
$ cat ~/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
 
$ chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
 
$ rm ~/id_rsa.pub
 
  
== Tunneling over SSH ==
+
Or for all ports (1 to 65,535):
  
For example, connecting a remote MySQL server to the localhost:
+
# nmap -p- server.example.com
  
$ ssh -L 3306:localhost:3306 jselliot@ssh.progsoc.org
+
== Network monitoring ==
  
If the machine you want to connect to is not the localhost of the machine you're ssh'ing to,
+
See [http://www.binarytides.com/linux-commands-monitor-network/ here] for details. Basically:
  
  $ ssh -L 3306:muspell.progsoc.uts.edu.au:3306 ssh.progsoc.uts.edu.au
+
# Overall bandwidth: nload, bmon, slurm, bwm-ng, cbm, speedometer, netload
 +
# Overall bandwidth (batch style output): vnstat, ifstat, dstat, collectl
 +
# Bandwidth per socket connection: iftop, iptraf, tcptrack, pktstat, netwatch, trafshow
 +
# Bandwidth per process: nethogs
  
The -L stanza is localport:remotehost:remoteport where localport is a
+
== nload ==
port on your machine, forwarded to remoteport on remotehost.
 
  
== Tunneling over SSH with PuTTY ==
+
You can watch network traffic in real-time with nload:
  
See [http://www.anchor.com.au/hosting/support/MySQL/Connecting_to_mysql_remotely Connecting to the MySQL database remotely (via an SSH Tunnel)]
+
# nload -u M
  
* run putty.exe
+
== Reporting network (NIC) speed ==
* Connection -> SSH -> Tunnels
 
** Port forwarding: source port to 3306
 
** destination: 127.0.0.1:3306
 
** check Local
 
** click Add
 
  
== Enabling verbose SSH logging ==
+
From [https://askubuntu.com/questions/431911/how-can-i-verify-the-speed-of-my-nic-in-ubuntu#431912 here]:
  
To see what's going on with your ssh connections,
+
# dmesg | grep eth0
 +
# mii-tool -v eth0
 +
# ethtool eth0
  
$ ssh -v user@host
+
Note: use ifconfig to get device name.
  
Or
+
== Path MTU discovery ==
  
$ ssh -vv user@host
+
To do a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Path_MTU_Discovery Path MTU Discovery], from the iputils-tracepath package:
  
== Unlocking SSH key for session ==
+
# tracepath host.example.com
  
jj5@orac:~/.config/autostart$ cat ssh-add.desktop
+
== Listing available Ethernet devices ==
[Desktop Entry]
 
Type=Application
 
Name=ssh-add
 
Comment=Adds my private key to my session.
 
Exec=/usr/bin/konsole -e 'ssh-add /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa'
 
  
== Links ==
+
To see a list of NICs available on the host:
  
* [http://blogs.perl.org/users/smylers/2011/08/ssh-productivity-tips.html SSH Can Do That? Productivity Tips for Working with Remote Servers]
+
$ cat /proc/net/dev
* [http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html PuTTY Download Page]
 
  
= Standard IO =
+
Also
  
== cat EOF ==
+
$ ip link
  
$ cat > output <<EOF
+
== 59 Linux Networking commands and scripts ==
> text
 
> EOF
 
  
$ cat output
+
See [https://haydenjames.io/linux-networking-commands-scripts/ 59 Linux Networking commands and scripts].
text
 
  
= Script =
+
== Links ==
  
== Creating a session log with script ==
+
* [http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/linux-unix-open-ports/ HowTo: UNIX / Linux Open TCP / UDP Ports]
  
$ script -t 2> timing
+
= IPTables =
  
The session log is in the file 'typescript' and the timing data is in 'timing'.
+
== Applying firewall rules ==
  
== Replaying a scripted session ==
+
For configuration info see [http://articles.slicehost.com/2008/4/25/ubuntu-hardy-setup-page-1 this article].
  
  $ scriptreplay timing
+
  $ sudo vim /etc/iptables.test.rules
 +
$ sudo /sbin/iptables -F
 +
$ sudo /sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.test.rules
 +
$ sudo iptables -L
 +
$ sudo -s
 +
# iptables-save > /etc/iptables.up.rules
 +
# exit
  
Uses the default file 'typescript' and the 'timing' file as specified.
+
== Blocking an IP address with iptables ==
  
= Screen =
+
To drop IP address 1.2.3.4:
  
== Creating a new screen or reconnecting to a detached screen ==
+
# iptables -A INPUT -s 1.2.3.4 -j DROP
  
$ screen -R
+
= ufw =
  
== Detaching a screen ==
+
== Denying hosts with ufw ==
  
$ screen -D
+
See [[Admin_reference#Denying_hosts_with_UFW|denying hosts with ufw]].
  
== Reconnecting to screen ==
+
= Bind9 =
  
$ screen -D
+
== Viewing Bind9 querylog ==
$ screen -R
 
  
I have a script in ~/bin/reconnect like so,
+
$ sudo rndc querylog
 +
$ tail -f /var/log/syslog
  
#!/bin/bash
+
= IPSec =
screen -D
 
screen -R
 
  
This will detach your last screen, and reconnect it on the current terminal.
+
== Disabling IPSec ==
  
== Scrolling in screen ==
+
# setkey -FP
  
See [https://www.saltycrane.com/blog/2008/01/how-to-scroll-in-gnu-screen/ How to scroll in GNU Screen]. Basically press Ctrl+A ESC then use Page Up and Page Down. Press ESC again to exit copy mode. As usual you can use Ctrl+[ in place of ESC.
+
= OpenSSL =
  
= tmux =
+
== Debugging IMAPS with OpenSSL ==
  
== Live collaboration with tmux ==
+
# openssl s_client -connect localhost:993
 +
> a1 LOGIN username@host password
 +
> a2 LOGOUT
  
User A:
+
== Debugging HTTPS with OpenSSL ==
  
  tmux -S /tmp/collab
+
  $ openssl s_client -connect www.example.com:443
  chmod 777 /tmp/collab
+
GET /example.html HTTP/1.1
 +
  host: www.example.com
  
User B:
+
== Links ==
  
tmux -S /tmp/collab attach
+
* [http://www.madboa.com/geek/openssl/ OpenSSL Command-Line HOWTO]
  
= Vim =
+
= Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) =
  
== First, why Vim? ==
+
== Links ==
  
Read [http://www.viemu.com/a-why-vi-vim.html Why, oh WHY, do those #?@! nutheads use vi?]
+
* [http://www.centos.org/docs/5/html/Deployment_Guide-en-US/ch-pam.html 42.4. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)]
  
== Visual modes ==
+
= SSH =
  
Use 'v' for visual mode, 'V' for visual line mode and Ctrl+V for visual block mode.
+
== Configuring SSH key login ==
  
== Configuring spaces instead of tabs ==
+
On the client machine generate a key-pair (if necessary, check for existing ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub):
  
I use two spaces instead of tabs. To configure, edit your .vimrc file:
+
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
  
$ vim ~/.vimrc
+
Copy the public key from the client to the server:
  
and include the following lines:
+
$ scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub user@example.org:
  
set tabstop=2
+
Configure the authorized keys on the server:
set shiftwidth=2
 
set expandtab
 
  
== Configuring syntax highlighting ==
+
$ ssh user@example.org
 
+
$ mkdir ~/.ssh
See [http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/turn-on-or-off-color-syntax-highlighting-in-vi-or-vim/ here].
+
$ chmod go-w .ssh
 +
$ cat ~/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
 +
$ chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
 +
$ rm ~/id_rsa.pub
  
Use:
+
== Tunneling over SSH ==
  
:syntax on
+
For example, connecting a remote MySQL server to the localhost:
  
to turn on syntax highlighting.
+
$ ssh -L 3306:localhost:3306 jselliot@ssh.progsoc.org
  
Use:
+
If the machine you want to connect to is not the localhost of the machine you're ssh'ing to,
  
:syntax off
+
  $ ssh -L 3306:muspell.progsoc.uts.edu.au:3306 ssh.progsoc.uts.edu.au
  
to turn off syntax highlighting.
+
The -L stanza is localport:remotehost:remoteport where localport is a
 +
port on your machine, forwarded to remoteport on remotehost.
  
To always use syntax highlighting:
+
== Tunneling over SSH with PuTTY ==
  
$ vim ~/.vimrc
+
See [http://www.anchor.com.au/hosting/support/MySQL/Connecting_to_mysql_remotely Connecting to the MySQL database remotely (via an SSH Tunnel)]
  
and add:
+
* run putty.exe
 +
* Connection -> SSH -> Tunnels
 +
** Port forwarding: source port to 3306
 +
** destination: 127.0.0.1:3306
 +
** check Local
 +
** click Add
  
syntax on
+
== Enabling verbose SSH logging ==
  
To get a list of supported colour schemes open vim and type:
+
To see what's going on with your ssh connections,
  
  :colorscheme[space][Ctrl+D]
+
  $ ssh -v user@host
  
To always use a particular colorscheme edit ~/.vimrc and add (for example):
+
Or
  
  colorscheme desert
+
  $ ssh -vv user@host
  
== Inserting a TAB character when expandtab is on ==
+
== Unlocking SSH key for session ==
  
The problem here is that you have configured vim to insert spaces, but for a particular file (e.g. a Makefile) you need to insert a character.
+
jj5@orac:~/.config/autostart$ cat ssh-add.desktop
 +
[Desktop Entry]
 +
Type=Application
 +
Name=ssh-add
 +
Comment=Adds my private key to my session.
 +
Exec=/usr/bin/konsole -e 'ssh-add /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa'
  
Press Ctrl+V TAB to insert a literal tab character.
+
== Links ==
  
Or you can disable tab expansion altogether with:
+
* [http://blogs.perl.org/users/smylers/2011/08/ssh-productivity-tips.html SSH Can Do That? Productivity Tips for Working with Remote Servers]
 +
* [http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html PuTTY Download Page]
  
:set expandtab!
+
= Standard IO =
  
== Changing 2 space indent to 4 space indent (e.g. for python files) ==
+
== cat EOF ==
  
  :%s/^\s*/&&/g
+
  $ cat > output <<EOF
 +
> text
 +
> EOF
  
For more information [https://www.progclub.org/blog/2013/08/10/vim-reformat-a-python-file-to-have-4-space-indentations/ see here].
+
$ cat output
 +
text
  
== Recording and replaying a macro ==
+
= Script =
  
To record a macro press 'q' and then a number between 1 and 9. E.g. press "q1". The macro is now recording. When you've finished issuing your commands press 'q' again to finish recording. To replay a macro press '@' followed by the number of the macro. That is, if you pressed "q1" to record the macro, press "@1" to replay the macro. To replay the last macro again press "@@".
+
== Creating a session log with script ==
  
== Deleting to end of line ==
+
$ script -t 2> timing
  
d$
+
The session log is in the file 'typescript' and the timing data is in 'timing'.
  
== Deleting to beginning of line ==
+
== Replaying a scripted session ==
  
  d^
+
  $ scriptreplay timing
  
== Finding text ==
+
Uses the default file 'typescript' and the 'timing' file as specified.
  
To search forward for "text":
+
= Screen =
  
/text
+
== Creating a new screen or reconnecting to a detached screen ==
  
To search backward for "text":
+
$ screen -R
  
?text
+
== Detaching a screen ==
  
To repeat the last search in a forward direction press 'n', or to search again backwards press 'N'.
+
$ screen -D
  
== Finding and replacing text ==
+
== Reconnecting to screen ==
  
To replace the first instance of "search" on the current line with "destroy":
+
$ screen -D
 +
$ screen -R
  
:s/search/destroy/
+
I have a script in ~/bin/reconnect like so,
  
To replace all instances of "search" on the current line with "destroy":
+
#!/bin/bash
 +
screen -D
 +
screen -R
  
:s/search/destroy/g
+
This will detach your last screen, and reconnect it on the current terminal.
  
To replace all instances of "search" on lines 13 to 37 with "destroy":
+
== Scrolling in screen ==
  
:13,37 s/search/destroy/g
+
See [https://www.saltycrane.com/blog/2008/01/how-to-scroll-in-gnu-screen/ How to scroll in GNU Screen]. Basically press Ctrl+A ESC then use Page Up and Page Down. Press ESC again to exit copy mode. As usual you can use Ctrl+[ in place of ESC.
  
To replace all instances of "search" in the entire file with "destroy":
+
= tmux =
  
:%s/search/destroy/g
+
== Live collaboration with tmux ==
  
== Changing DOS/Windows line-endings (CRLF) to Unix line-endings ==
+
User A:
  
To set the line-ending to Unix line endings run the command:
+
tmux -S /tmp/collab
 +
chmod 777 /tmp/collab
  
:setlocal ff=unix
+
User B:
  
More information on managing file formats [http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/File_format available here].
+
tmux -S /tmp/collab attach
  
== Disabling auto-indent etc. to paste from clipboard ==
+
= Vim =
  
To disable smart indenting when you're going to paste in text:
+
== First, why Vim? ==
  
:set paste
+
Read [http://www.viemu.com/a-why-vi-vim.html Why, oh WHY, do those #?@! nutheads use vi?]
  
To turn it off again:
+
== Visual modes ==
  
:set nopaste
+
Use 'v' for visual mode, 'V' for visual line mode and Ctrl+V for visual block mode.
  
There's more info in this article: [http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/Toggle_auto-indenting_for_code_paste Toggle auto-indenting for code paste]
+
== Configuring spaces instead of tabs ==
  
== Positioning windows ==
+
I use two spaces instead of tabs. To configure, edit your .vimrc file:
  
Use -o for horizontal split, e.g.:
+
$ vim ~/.vimrc
  
vim -o a.txt b.txt
+
and include the following lines:
  
Use -O for vertical split, e.g.:
+
set tabstop=2
 +
set shiftwidth=2
 +
set expandtab
  
vim -o a.txt b.txt
+
== Configuring syntax highlighting ==
  
Use ^W to navigate windows then use directional keys h, j, k, l, etc.
+
See [http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/turn-on-or-off-color-syntax-highlighting-in-vi-or-vim/ here].
  
Use ^W and &lt; or &gt; to resize windows.
+
Use:
  
== To indent a block of text in Vim ==
+
:syntax on
  
Use the > command. E.g. to indent five lines:
+
to turn on syntax highlighting.
  
5 > >
+
Use:
  
Press . (dot) to keep indenting.
+
:syntax off
  
Or inside a block (e.g. curly brace, HTML/XML element, etc.) you can put your cursor in the element on on the curly brace and then:
+
to turn off syntax highlighting.
  
> %
+
To always use syntax highlighting:
  
See [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/235839/indent-multiple-lines-quickly-in-vi#235841 here] for more.
+
$ vim ~/.vimrc
  
== Open a file in a new window/tab ==
+
and add:
  
To open a file on the left hand side:
+
syntax on
  
:vert new filename.ext
+
To get a list of supported colour schemes open vim and type:
  
Note: ':vnew filename.ext' and ':vsp filename.ext' also work.
+
:colorscheme[space][Ctrl+D]
  
To open a file at the top:
+
To always use a particular colorscheme edit ~/.vimrc and add (for example):
  
  :new filename.ext
+
  colorscheme desert
  
See [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/10760310/how-to-open-a-new-file-in-vim-in-a-new-window#10762678 here] for more.
+
== Inserting a TAB character when expandtab is on ==
  
== Explore files in Vim ==
+
The problem here is that you have configured vim to insert spaces, but for a particular file (e.g. a Makefile) you need to insert a character.
  
Enter:
+
Press Ctrl+V TAB to insert a literal tab character.
  
:Explore
+
Or you can disable tab expansion altogether with:
  
== Switch between Vim tabs ==
+
:set expandtab!
  
Use gt and gT.
+
== Changing 2 space indent to 4 space indent (e.g. for python files) ==
  
== Switch between Vim windows ==
+
:%s/^\s*/&&/g
  
To toggle between open windows use:
+
For more information [https://www.progclub.org/blog/2013/08/10/vim-reformat-a-python-file-to-have-4-space-indentations/ see here].
  
Ctrl+W W
+
== Recording and replaying a macro ==
  
To move in a direction use:
+
To record a macro press 'q' and then a number between 1 and 9. E.g. press "q1". The macro is now recording. When you've finished issuing your commands press 'q' again to finish recording. To replay a macro press '@' followed by the number of the macro. That is, if you pressed "q1" to record the macro, press "@1" to replay the macro. To replay the last macro again press "@@".
  
Ctrl+W h/j/k/l
+
== Deleting to end of line ==
  
See [http://superuser.com/questions/280500/how-does-one-switch-between-windows-on-vim#280501 here] for more.
+
d$
  
== Insert block comment in Vim ==
+
== Deleting to beginning of line ==
  
See [https://stackoverflow.com/a/253391/868138 here] for line-commenting.
+
d^
 +
 
 +
== Finding text ==
 +
 
 +
To search forward for "text":
  
So it's:
+
/text
  
# Ctrl+V (Note: not Shift+V!)
+
To search backward for "text":
# Up/Down to select rows
 
# Shift+I
 
# Enter your text, e.g. '#' or '//'
 
# Ctrl+[ (or 'Esc')
 
  
== Navigate to matching tag ==
+
?text
  
To navigate to the matching beginning or end tag use '%'.
+
To repeat the last search in a forward direction press 'n', or to search again backwards press 'N'.
  
You can also use e.g. '[{' to match the previous '{', or e.g. '])' to match the next ')'.
+
== Finding and replacing text ==
  
== Auto-format HTML tags ==
+
To replace the first instance of "search" on the current line with "destroy":
  
Stolen from [https://www.quora.com/How-do-you-auto-format-HTML-in-Vim here].
+
:s/search/destroy/
  
# first join all the lines - ggVGgJ
+
To replace all instances of "search" on the current line with "destroy":
# Now break tags to new lines - :%s/>\s*</>\r</g
 
# Now set filetype - :set ft=html (you can do this before too)
 
# Now Indent - ggVG=
 
  
== Links ==
+
:s/search/destroy/g
  
* [http://www.vim.org/ Vim: the editor]
+
To replace all instances of "search" on lines 13 to 37 with "destroy":
* [http://yannesposito.com/Scratch/en/blog/Learn-Vim-Progressively/ Learn Vim Progressively]
 
* [http://michael.peopleofhonoronly.com/vim/ Vim cheat sheet for programmers]
 
* [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4781070/how-to-insert-tab-character-when-expandtab-option-is-on-in-vim How to insert Tab character when expandtab option is ON in VIM]
 
* [https://www.linux.com/learn/tutorials/8255-vim-tips-the-basics-of-search-and-replace Vim tips: the basics of search and replace]
 
* [http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/File_format File format]
 
* [http://www.viemu.com/a_vi_vim_graphical_cheat_sheet_tutorial.html Graphical vi-vim Cheat Sheet and Tutorial]
 
* [http://www.angelwatt.com/coding/notes/vim-commands.html Vim Commands Cheat Sheet]
 
  
== Create PDF from text using Vim ==
+
:13,37 s/search/destroy/g
  
Generate PDF from input.txt with:
+
To replace all instances of "search" in the entire file with "destroy":
  
  $ vim input.txt -c "hardcopy > doc.ps | q" && ps2pdf doc.ps
+
  :%s/search/destroy/g
  
Examine output with:
+
== Changing DOS/Windows line-endings (CRLF) to Unix line-endings ==
  
$ okular doc.pdf
+
To set the line-ending to Unix line endings run the command:
  
= Write =
+
:setlocal ff=unix
  
== Talking to other users on the system ==
+
More information on managing file formats [http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/File_format available here].
  
'''write''' is a unix command for talking to other users on the system. To use '''write''':
+
== Disabling auto-indent etc. to paste from clipboard ==
  
1. SSH to <username>@<hostname> and login with your username and password.
+
To disable smart indenting when you're going to paste in text:
  
2. Issue the following command to find out who is logged onto the system:
+
:set paste
  
$ who
+
To turn it off again:
  
3. Issue the following command to talk to a specific user:
+
:set nopaste
  
$ write <username>
+
There's more info in this article: [http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/Toggle_auto-indenting_for_code_paste Toggle auto-indenting for code paste]
  
4. Enter the message you'd like to send the user, followed by Ctrl+C to send. Press Ctrl+D to cancel.
+
== Positioning windows ==
  
= Date =
+
Use -o for horizontal split, e.g.:
  
== Reporting the time on the server ==
+
vim -o a.txt b.txt
  
$ date
+
Use -O for vertical split, e.g.:
  
== Reporting UTC time ==
+
vim -o a.txt b.txt
  
$ date --utc
+
Use ^W to navigate windows then use directional keys h, j, k, l, etc.
  
== Getting the date in yyyy-MM-dd-hhmmss format ==
+
Use ^W and &lt; or &gt; to resize windows.
  
$ date="`date +%F-%H%M%S`"
+
== To indent a block of text in Vim ==
  
== Getting the year in four digits ==
+
Use the > command. E.g. to indent five lines:
  
  $ year="`date +%Y`"
+
  5 > >
  
== Getting the month in two digits ==
+
Press . (dot) to keep indenting.
  
$ month="`date +%m`"
+
Or inside a block (e.g. curly brace, HTML/XML element, etc.) you can put your cursor in the element on on the curly brace and then:
  
== Getting the day of the month in two digits ==
+
> %
  
$ day="`date +%d`"
+
See [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/235839/indent-multiple-lines-quickly-in-vi#235841 here] for more.
  
== Getting yesterday's date ==
+
== Open a file in a new window/tab ==
  
$ date --date='1 day ago' +%Y-%m-%d
+
To open a file on the left hand side:
  
== Converting Unix time (seconds since epoch) ==
+
:vert new filename.ext
  
For timestamp '1501370200':
+
Note: ':vnew filename.ext' and ':vsp filename.ext' also work.
  
$ date -d @1501370200 +%F-%H%M%S
+
To open a file at the top:
  
== Running timedatectl from systemd ==
+
:new filename.ext
  
There's a new command bundled with systmed:
+
See [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/10760310/how-to-open-a-new-file-in-vim-in-a-new-window#10762678 here] for more.
  
# timedatectl
+
== Explore files in Vim ==
  
It reports on (and controls) how the system time is configured.
+
Enter:
  
= MySQL =
+
:Explore
  
== Run mysql without authentication/authorisation ==
+
== Switch between Vim tabs ==
  
# service mysql stop
+
Use gt and gT.
# mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables &
 
  
Then you can connect without a password, e.g.:
+
== Switch between Vim windows ==
  
# mysql -u root mysql
+
To toggle between open windows use:
  
To stop the unauthenticated service:
+
Ctrl+W W
  
# mysqladmin shutdown
+
To move in a direction use:
  
Then restart a normal service:
+
Ctrl+W h/j/k/l
  
# service mysql start
+
See [http://superuser.com/questions/280500/how-does-one-switch-between-windows-on-vim#280501 here] for more.
  
== Logging all database queries ==
+
== Insert block comment in Vim ==
  
# vim /etc/mysql/my.cnf
+
See [https://stackoverflow.com/a/253391/868138 here] for line-commenting.
  
In the [mysqld] section add:
+
So it's:
  
log=/tmp/mysql.log
+
# Ctrl+V (Note: not Shift+V!)
 +
# Up/Down to select rows
 +
# Shift+I
 +
# Enter your text, e.g. '#' or '//'
 +
# Ctrl+[ (or 'Esc')
  
Then:
+
== Navigate to matching tag ==
  
# service mysql restart
+
To navigate to the matching beginning or end tag use '%'.
  
Watch the log with:
+
You can also use e.g. '[{' to match the previous '{', or e.g. '])' to match the next ')'.
  
# tail -f /tmp/mysql.log
+
== Auto-format HTML tags ==
  
== Dumping a MySQL database ==
+
Stolen from [https://www.quora.com/How-do-you-auto-format-HTML-in-Vim here].
  
You can dump the database into a file using:  
+
# first join all the lines - ggVGgJ
+
# Now break tags to new lines - :%s/>\s*</>\r</g
$ mysqldump -h hostname -u user --password=password databasename > filename
+
# Now set filetype - :set ft=html (you can do this before too)
 +
# Now Indent - ggVG=
  
== Loading a MySQL database from a dump file ==
+
== Links ==
  
You can create a database using:
+
* [http://www.vim.org/ Vim: the editor]
 
+
* [http://yannesposito.com/Scratch/en/blog/Learn-Vim-Progressively/ Learn Vim Progressively]
$ echo create database databasename | mysql -h hostname -u user -p
+
* [http://michael.peopleofhonoronly.com/vim/ Vim cheat sheet for programmers]
 +
* [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4781070/how-to-insert-tab-character-when-expandtab-option-is-on-in-vim How to insert Tab character when expandtab option is ON in VIM]
 +
* [https://www.linux.com/learn/tutorials/8255-vim-tips-the-basics-of-search-and-replace Vim tips: the basics of search and replace]
 +
* [http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/File_format File format]
 +
* [http://www.viemu.com/a_vi_vim_graphical_cheat_sheet_tutorial.html Graphical vi-vim Cheat Sheet and Tutorial]
 +
* [http://www.angelwatt.com/coding/notes/vim-commands.html Vim Commands Cheat Sheet]
  
You can restore a database using:
+
== Create PDF from text using Vim ==
 
$ mysql -h hostname -u user --password=password databasename < filename
 
  
== Creating a MySQL user ==
+
Generate PDF from input.txt with:
  
  # mysql -h localhost -u root --password=<password>
+
  $ vim input.txt -c "hardcopy > doc.ps | q" && ps2pdf doc.ps
mysql> create user 'username'@'localhost' identified by '<password>';
 
  
== Granting all MySQL user permissions ==
+
Examine output with:
  
  # mysql -h localhost -u root --password=<password>
+
  $ okular doc.pdf
mysql> grant all privileges on dbname.* to user@host;
 
  
== Select domain name from email address ==
+
= Write =
  
SELECT SUBSTR( email, INSTR( email, '@' ) + 1 )
+
== Talking to other users on the system ==
  
== Check if MySQL connection is encrypted with TLS/SSL ==
+
'''write''' is a unix command for talking to other users on the system. To use '''write''':
  
Check the SSL version in use:
+
1. SSH to <username>@<hostname> and login with your username and password.
  
show status like 'Ssl_version';
+
2. Issue the following command to find out who is logged onto the system:
  
Or check the cipher in use:
+
$ who
  
show status like 'Ssl_cipher';
+
3. Issue the following command to talk to a specific user:
  
= Apache =
+
$ write <username>
  
== Reporting loaded Apache modules ==
+
4. Enter the message you'd like to send the user, followed by Ctrl+C to send. Press Ctrl+D to cancel.
  
# apache2ctl -M
+
= Date =
  
== Maintaining .htaccess passwords ==
+
== Reporting the time on the server ==
  
To add or modify the password for a user:
+
$ date
  
$ htpasswd /etc/apache2/passwd username
+
== Reporting UTC time ==
  
== Configuring PHP session timeout in .htaccess ==
+
$ date --utc
  
For a session timeout of 9 hours:
+
== Getting the date in yyyy-MM-dd-hhmmss format ==
  
  php_value session.cookie_lifetime 32400
+
  $ date="`date +%F-%H%M%S`"
php_value session.gc_maxlifetime 32400
 
  
== Disabling PHP magic quotes in .htaccess ==
+
== Getting the year in four digits ==
  
  php_flag magic_quotes_gpc Off
+
  $ year="`date +%Y`"
  
== Requiring HTTP Auth in .htaccess ==
+
== Getting the month in two digits ==
  
  AuthType Basic
+
  $ month="`date +%m`"
AuthName "Speak Friend And Enter"
 
AuthUserFile /home/jj5/.htpasswd
 
Require valid-user
 
  
== Restarting Apache ==
+
== Getting the day of the month in two digits ==
  
The hard way
+
$ day="`date +%d`"
  
$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
+
== Getting yesterday's date ==
  
The graceful way (avoids dropping active connections)
+
$ date --date='1 day ago' +%Y-%m-%d
  
$ sudo apache2ctl graceful
+
== Converting Unix time (seconds since epoch) ==
  
== Allowing directory browsing ==
+
For timestamp '1501370200':
  
To show directory index pages, in the apache config file:
+
$ date -d @1501370200 +%F-%H%M%S
  
<Directory /var/www/data>
+
== Running timedatectl from systemd ==
  Options Indexes
 
</Directory>
 
  
= C =
+
There's a new command bundled with systmed:
  
== Locating memset function ==
+
# timedatectl
  
The memset function is in &lt;string.h> as described in this article [http://www.java-samples.com/showtutorial.php?tutorialid=591 Using memset(), memcpy(), and memmove() in C]
+
It reports on (and controls) how the system time is configured.
  
== Links ==
+
= MySQL (and MariaDB) =
  
* [http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-memory/ Inside memory management]
+
== Run mysql without authentication/authorisation ==
  
= PHP =
+
# service mysql stop
 +
# mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables &
  
== Including a file relative to the including file ==
+
Then you can connect without a password, e.g.:
  
  require_once( dirname( __FILE__ ) . '/relative/path/to.php' );
+
  # mysql -u root mysql
  
== Enabling error reporting ==
+
To stop the unauthenticated service:
  
  error_reporting( E_ALL | E_STRICT );
+
  # mysqladmin shutdown
ini_set( 'display_errors', 'On' );
 
  
== Setting an error handler ==
+
Then restart a normal service:
  
  set_error_handler( "error_handler", E_ALL | E_STRICT );
+
  # service mysql start
  
function error_handler( $error_code, $error_message, $error_file, $error_line, $error_context ) {
+
== Logging all database queries ==
  // ...
 
}
 
  
== Disable HTML content in var_dump ==
+
# vim /etc/mysql/my.cnf
  
ini_set( 'html_errors', 'off' );
+
In the [mysqld] section add:
  
== Report PHP modules ==
+
log=/tmp/mysql.log
  
$ php -m
+
Then:
  
== PHP Security Best Practices For Sys Admins ==
+
# service mysql restart
  
See [https://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/php-security-best-practices-tutorial.html Linux 25 PHP Security Best Practices For Sys Admins].
+
Watch the log with:
  
= BASH scripting =
+
# tail -f /tmp/mysql.log
  
For a primer on bash scripting see [http://www.progsoc.org/tfm/tfm03/node37.html TFM: Erotic Fantasy: /bin/sh Programming].
+
Or:
  
== Telling a script to run in bash ==
+
SET GLOBAL log_output = 'FILE';
 +
SET GLOBAL general_log_file = 'my_logs.txt';
 +
SET GLOBAL general_log = 'ON';
  
The first line of the file should be:
+
my_logs.txt will be in /var/lib/mysql
  
#!/bin/bash
+
== Dumping a MySQL database ==
  
== Checking if a command-line argument was passed in ==
+
You can dump the database into a file using:
 +
 +
$ mysqldump -h hostname -u user --password=password databasename > filename
  
if [ -n "$1" ]; then
+
== Loading a MySQL database from a dump file ==
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
 
  exit 1;
 
fi
 
  
== Checking if a command-line argument was not passed in ==
+
You can create a database using:
  
  if [ "$1" = "" ]; then
+
  $ echo create database databasename | mysql -h hostname -u user -p
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
 
  exit 1;
 
fi
 
  
Or:
+
You can restore a database using:
 +
 +
$ mysql -h hostname -u user --password=password databasename < filename
  
if [ -z "$1" ]; then
+
== Creating a MySQL user ==
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
 
  exit 1;
 
fi
 
  
== Checking command exit status ==
+
# mysql -h localhost -u root --password=<password>
 +
mysql> create user 'username'@'localhost' identified by '<password>';
  
cd /my/path
+
== Granting all MySQL user permissions ==
if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
 
  echo "Cannot change dir.";
 
  exit 1;
 
fi
 
  
== Checking if a file does/doesn't exist ==
+
# mysql -h localhost -u root --password=<password>
 +
mysql> grant all privileges on dbname.* to user@host;
  
Check if file exists:
+
== Select domain name from email address ==
  
  if [ -f "/my/file" ]; then
+
  SELECT SUBSTR( email, INSTR( email, '@' ) + 1 )
  cat /my/file
 
fi
 
  
Check if file doesn't exist:
+
== Check if MySQL connection is encrypted with TLS/SSL ==
  
if [ ! -f "/my/file" ]; then
+
Check the SSL version in use:
  touch /my/file
 
fi
 
  
== Checking if a directory does/doesn't exist ==
+
show status like 'Ssl_version';
  
Check if directory exists:
+
Or check the cipher in use:
  
  if [ -d "/my/dir" ]; then
+
  show status like 'Ssl_cipher';
  rmdir /my/dir
 
fi
 
  
Check if directory doesn't exist:
+
== Report on server config ==
  
if [ ! -d "/my/dir" ]; then
+
See [https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/show.html SHOW Statements] for the full list, but check out:
  mkdir /my/dir
 
fi
 
  
== Deleting old backups ==
+
SHOW VARIABLES
  
To keep only the latest five backups:
+
and
  
  find . -maxdepth 1 -type f -printf '%T@ %p\0' | sort -r -z -n | awk 'BEGIN { RS="\0"; ORS="\0"; FS="" } NR > 5 { sub("^[0-9]*(.[0-9]*)? ", ""); print }' | xargs -0 rm -f
+
  SHOW STATUS
  
This script stolen from [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/25785/delete-all-but-the-most-recent-x-files-in-bash stackoverflow].
+
and
  
Requires GNU find for -printf, GNU sort for -z, GNU awk for "\0" and GNU xargs for -0, but handles files with embedded newlines or spaces.
+
SHOW PROCESSLIST
  
== Changing into the script's directory ==
+
== Monitor MySQL activity ==
  
  cd "`dirname $0`"
+
  $ watch "mysql -t -e 'show processlist'"
  
== Getting the absolute path of a relative path ==
+
= Apache =
  
readlink -f ./some/path
+
== Reporting loaded Apache modules ==
  
== Creating a temp directory ==
+
# apache2ctl -M
  
dir=`mktemp -d` && cd $dir
+
== Maintaining .htaccess passwords ==
  
== Reading secret input from stdin ==
+
To add or modify the password for a user:
  
You can read a secret, such as a password, like this:
+
$ htpasswd /etc/apache2/passwd username
  
echo -n "Enter passphrase: "
+
== Configuring PHP session timeout in .htaccess ==
stty -echo
 
read passphrase;
 
stty echo
 
echo ""
 
  
After running the above the secret will be in the $passphrase environment variable.
+
For a session timeout of 9 hours:
  
== String replacements in bash ==
+
php_value session.cookie_lifetime 32400
 +
php_value session.gc_maxlifetime 32400
  
See the [http://www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/string-manipulation.html string manipulation] doco. Basically, to replace first occurrence:
+
== Disabling PHP magic quotes in .htaccess ==
  
  result=${var/find/replace}
+
  php_flag magic_quotes_gpc Off
  
To replace all occurrences:
+
== Requiring HTTP Auth in .htaccess ==
  
  result=${var//find/replace}
+
  AuthType Basic
 +
AuthName "Speak Friend And Enter"
 +
AuthUserFile /home/jj5/.htpasswd
 +
Require valid-user
  
A practical example, get an ISO date and turn it into a path:
+
== Restarting Apache ==
 +
 
 +
The hard way
 +
 
 +
$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
 +
 
 +
The graceful way (avoids dropping active connections)
  
  date="$(date +%Y-%m-%d)"
+
  $ sudo apache2ctl graceful
work_dir=${date//-//}
 
  
== Sending a HEREDOC to a file ==
+
== Allowing directory browsing ==
  
cat << EOF > /tmp/yourfilehere
+
To show directory index pages, in the apache config file:
These contents will be written to the file.
 
        This line is indented.
 
EOF
 
  
== Bash case/switch statement ==
+
<Directory /var/www/data>
 +
  Options Indexes
 +
</Directory>
  
See [http://tldp.org/LDP/Bash-Beginners-Guide/html/sect_07_03.html using case statements], e.g.:
+
= C =
  
case $space in
+
== Locating memset function ==
[1-6]*)
+
 
  Message="All is quiet."
+
The memset function is in &lt;string.h> as described in this article [http://www.java-samples.com/showtutorial.php?tutorialid=591 Using memset(), memcpy(), and memmove() in C]
  ;;
 
[7-8]*)
 
  Message="Start thinking about cleaning out some stuff. There's a partition that is $space % full."
 
  ;;
 
9[1-8])
 
  Message="Better hurry with that new disk...  One partition is $space % full."
 
  ;;
 
99)
 
  Message="I'm drowning here!  There's a partition at $space %!"
 
  ;;
 
*)
 
  Message="I seem to be running with an nonexistent amount of disk space..."
 
  ;;
 
esac
 
  
== Using dotglob shopt to match dot-files ==
+
== Links ==
  
To enable dot-file matching in globs, set the dotglob shell option:
+
* [http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-memory/ Inside memory management]
  
$ shopt -s dotglob
+
= PHP =
  
== Stopping a script from running if it previously exited due to error ==
+
== Including a file relative to the including file ==
  
  persistentDataDir=/var/lib/something
+
  require_once( dirname( __FILE__ ) . '/relative/path/to.php' );
alarm() {
 
  touch $persistentDataDir/alarm
 
}
 
trap alarm ERR
 
[ -f $persistentDataDir/alarm ] && exit 1
 
  
== Make sure only one instance of a script is running at a time ==
+
== Enabling error reporting ==
  
  ephemeralDataDir=/var/run/something
+
  error_reporting( E_ALL | E_STRICT );
  unlock() {
+
  ini_set( 'display_errors', 'On' );
  rmdir $ephemeralDataDir/lock
 
}
 
mkdir $ephemeralDataDir/lock || exit 1;
 
trap unlock EXIT
 
  
== BASH programming advice ==
+
== Setting an error handler ==
  
See [https://blog.yossarian.net/2020/01/23/Anybody-can-write-good-bash-with-a-little-effort Anybody can write good bash (with a little effort)].
+
set_error_handler( "error_handler", E_ALL | E_STRICT );
  
== Run a command using arguments that come from an array ==
+
function error_handler( $error_code, $error_message, $error_file, $error_line, $error_context ) {
 +
  // ...
 +
}
  
See [https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/412647/356289 here]:
+
== Disable HTML content in var_dump ==
  
  #!/bin/bash
+
  ini_set( 'html_errors', 'off' );
tabs=("first tab" "second tab")
 
args=()
 
for t in "${tabs[@]}" ; do
 
  args+=(-t "$t")
 
done
 
app "${args[@]}"
 
  
= Sed =
+
== Report PHP modules ==
  
== Find and replace with sed ==
+
$ php -m
  
To update the current file use '-i'. E.g.:
+
== PHP Security Best Practices For Sys Admins ==
  
sed -i 's/search-text/replace-text/' file
+
See [https://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/php-security-best-practices-tutorial.html Linux 25 PHP Security Best Practices For Sys Admins].
  
= Awk =
+
= BASH scripting =
  
== Listing IP addresses in an Apache web log ==
+
For a primer on bash scripting see [http://www.progsoc.org/tfm/tfm03/node37.html TFM: Erotic Fantasy: /bin/sh Programming].
  
awk '/GET \/path\/for\/url/ { print $1 }' /var/log/apache2/access.log | sort | uniq
+
== Telling a script to run in bash ==
  
== Printing space-separated field ==
+
The first line of the file should be:
  
  echo 'no no yes no' | awk '{print $3}'
+
  #!/bin/bash
  
== Printing delimited field ==
+
== Checking if a command-line argument was passed in ==
  
  echo 'no:no:yes:no' | awk -F ':' '{print $3}'
+
  if [ -n "$1" ]; then
 +
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
 +
  exit 1;
 +
fi
  
= Subversion =
+
== Checking if a command-line argument was not passed in ==
  
== Setting svn:externals from the command-line ==
+
if [ "$1" = "" ]; then
 +
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
 +
  exit 1;
 +
fi
  
See [http://beerpla.net/2009/06/20/how-to-properly-set-svn-svnexternals-property-in-svn-command-line/ here].
+
Or:
  
To set an svn:externals from the command-line:
+
if [ -z "$1" ]; then
 +
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
 +
  exit 1;
 +
fi
  
svn propset svn:externals 'rdfind-php https://www.progclub.org/svn/pcrepo/rdfind.php/branches/0.1' .
+
== Checking command exit status ==
svn ci -m 'Adding svn:externals for rdfind-php...'
 
svn up
 
  
Or to use a file:
+
cd /my/path
 +
if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
 +
  echo "Cannot change dir.";
 +
  exit 1;
 +
fi
  
svn propset svn:externals -F svn.externals .
+
== Checking if a file does/doesn't exist ==
  
== Setting svn:ignore from the command line ==
+
Check if file exists:
  
See [http://tedone.typepad.com/blog/2010/03/setting-svnignore-from-the-command-line.html here].
+
if [ -f "/my/file" ]; then
 +
  cat /my/file
 +
fi
  
$ svn propset svn:ignore [file|folder] [path]
+
Check if file doesn't exist:
  
Or use a file and apply recursively:
+
if [ ! -f "/my/file" ]; then
 +
  touch /my/file
 +
fi
  
$ svn propset svn:ignore -RF ./svn-ignore-list.txt .
+
== Checking if a directory does/doesn't exist ==
  
= Git =
+
Check if directory exists:
  
== Showing status of working copy ==
+
if [ -d "/my/dir" ]; then
 +
  rmdir /my/dir
 +
fi
  
git status
+
Check if directory doesn't exist:
  
== Showing repo history ==
+
if [ ! -d "/my/dir" ]; then
 +
  mkdir /my/dir
 +
fi
  
git log
+
== Deleting old backups ==
  
== Showing remote repositories (including 'origin') ==
+
To keep only the latest five backups:
  
  git remote -v
+
  find . -maxdepth 1 -type f -printf '%T@ %p\0' | sort -r -z -n | awk 'BEGIN { RS="\0"; ORS="\0"; FS="" } NR > 5 { sub("^[0-9]*(.[0-9]*)? ", ""); print }' | xargs -0 rm -f
  
== Handy git aliases ==
+
This script stolen from [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/25785/delete-all-but-the-most-recent-x-files-in-bash stackoverflow].
  
Save these to your ~/.gitconfig file.
+
Requires GNU find for -printf, GNU sort for -z, GNU awk for "\0" and GNU xargs for -0, but handles files with embedded newlines or spaces.
  
For a nicer view of history than standard 'git log' -- colourful, one-line-per commit, etc:
+
== Changing into the script's directory ==
  
  graph = !git log --all --graph --color --abbrev-commit --pretty=oneline
+
cd "`dirname $0`"
  
To show only the files that have changed, rather than the full line-by-line content:
+
== Getting the absolute path of a relative path ==
  
  dif  = !git diff --name-status
+
readlink -f ./some/path
  
== Show git remote URL ==
+
== Creating a temp directory ==
  
  git config --get remote.origin.url
+
  dir=`mktemp -d` && cd $dir
  
= IRC =
+
== Reading secret input from stdin ==
  
== Instructing ChanServ to op an admin ==
+
You can read a secret, such as a password, like this:
  
  /msg ChanServ op #channel user
+
  echo -n "Enter passphrase: "
 +
stty -echo
 +
read passphrase;
 +
stty echo
 +
echo ""
  
E.g.
+
After running the above the secret will be in the $passphrase environment variable.
  
/msg ChanServ op #gnurc jj5
+
== String replacements in bash ==
  
Sub 'op' for 'deop' to remove op privilege.
+
See the [http://www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/string-manipulation.html string manipulation] doco. Basically, to replace first occurrence:
  
= C++ =
+
result=${var/find/replace}
  
== C++ books ==
+
To replace all occurrences:
  
=== Books I want ===
+
result=${var//find/replace}
  
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1785283073 Boost.Asio C++ Network Programming 2ed]
+
A practical example, get an ISO date and turn it into a path:
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1783986549 Boost.Asio C++ Network Programming Cookbook]
 
  
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/020170353X Accelerated C++] by Andrew Koening
+
date="$(date +%Y-%m-%d)"
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321334876 Effective C++] by Scott Meyers
+
work_dir=${date//-//}
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1491903996 Effective Modern C++] by Scott Meyers
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/020163371X More Effective C++] by Scott Meyers
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201749629 Effective STL] by Scott Meyers
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201615622 Exceptional C++] by Herb Sutter
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/020170434X More Exceptional C++] by Herb Sutter
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201760428 Exceptional C++ Style] by Herb Sutter
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321227255 C++ Template Metaprogramming] by David Abrahams
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/059652269X 97 Things Every Software Architect Should Know] by Richard Monson-Haefel
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/9491028022 Introduction to the Boost C++ Libraries; Volume II - Advanced Libraries] by Robert Demming
 
  
=== Books I own ===
+
== Sending a HEREDOC to a file ==
  
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321563840 The C++ Programming Language 4ed] by Bjarne Stroustrup
+
cat << EOF > /tmp/yourfilehere
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/9491028022 Introduction to the Boost C++ Libraries; Volume II - Advanced Libraries]
+
These contents will be written to the file.
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1849514887 Boost C++ Application Development Cookbook]
+
        This line is indented.
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1782163263 Boost.Asio C++ Network Programming]
+
EOF
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321113586 C++ Coding Standards] by Herb Sutter &#x2713;
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201704315 Modern C++ Design] by Andrei Alexandrescu &#x2713;
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0596809484 97 Things Every Programmer Should Know] by Kevlin Henney &#x2713;
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321133544 Beyond the C++ Standard Library] by Björn Karlsson &#x2713;
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/9491028014 Introduction to the Boost C++ Libraries; Volume I - Foundations] by Robert Demming &#x2713;
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0123850037 API Design for C++] by Martin Reddy &#x2713;
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00CB23URA Advanced C++ Metaprogramming] by Davide Di Gennaro &#x2713;
 
** Note: the next version of this book is: [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1484210115 Advanced Metaprogramming in Classic C++]
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1933988770 C++ Concurrency in Action: Practical Multithreading] by Anthony Williams &#x2713;
 
  
=== Books I'm not reading ===
+
== Bash case/switch statement ==
  
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321563840 The C++ Programming Language 3ed] by Bjarne Stroustrup &#x2713;
+
See [http://tldp.org/LDP/Bash-Beginners-Guide/html/sect_07_03.html using case statements], e.g.:
** Note: 3ed is obsolete. Buy 4ed (above).
 
  
=== Books I've read ===
+
case $space in
 
+
[1-6]*)
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0596004966 C++ Pocket Reference] by Kyle Loudon &#x2713;
+
  Message="All is quiet."
 
+
  ;;
== C++ blogs/articles ==
+
[7-8]*)
 
+
  Message="Start thinking about cleaning out some stuff. There's a partition that is $space % full."
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/hsutter/ Herb Sutter's MSDN blog]
+
  ;;
* [http://herbsutter.com/ Herb Sutter's personal blog]
+
9[1-8])
* [http://herbsutter.com/gotw/ Herb Sutter's Guru of the Week (GotW)] updated from [http://gotw.ca/gotw/ gotw.ca]
+
  Message="Better hurry with that new disk...  One partition is $space % full."
 +
  ;;
 +
99)
 +
  Message="I'm drowning here!  There's a partition at $space %!"
 +
  ;;
 +
*)
 +
  Message="I seem to be running with an nonexistent amount of disk space..."
 +
  ;;
 +
esac
  
== C++ performance tips ==
+
== Using dotglob shopt to match dot-files ==
  
* ++c can be faster than c++.
+
To enable dot-file matching in globs, set the dotglob shell option:
* use const for everything that you possibly can.
 
* use 'inline' when you need to define a function in a header. Typically only do that if it's small and the increase in code size from inlining is worth the cost to avoid the cost of a function call. For anything except trivially small functions you'll probably need to profile to know if it's worth it.
 
* don't use registers.
 
* const [http://www.gotw.ca/gotw/081.htm rarely affects performance].
 
* debunking a number of [http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg21/docs/TR18015.pdf C++ myths that won't die].
 
* std::sort<> is typically faster than qsort() because it can avoid indirection at runtime.
 
* if you've got parallelisation going on, you may be able to just replace a std::for_each with a parallel equivalent.
 
* read about [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/579887/how-expensive-is-rtti performance cost of RTTI] (Run Time Type Information) and [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4486609/when-can-compiling-c-without-rtti-cause-problems how to disable it]
 
* don't use dynamic_cast because it is slow (typeid is faster but still relies on RTTI)
 
* prefer unique_ptr to shared_ptr when possible. unique_ptr has less overhead.
 
* [http://sunsite.uakom.sk/sunworldonline/swol-02-1996/swol-02-perf.html Which is better, static or dynamic linking?]
 
* [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2550281/floating-point-vs-integer-calculations-on-modern-hardware Integer vs Floating-Point performance]
 
  
= systemd =
+
$ shopt -s dotglob
  
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemd systemd] is an init system used in most Linux distributions to bootstrap the user space and manage all processes subsequently.
+
== Stopping a script from running if it previously exited due to error ==
  
== Following a service log ==
+
persistentDataDir=/var/lib/something
 +
alarm() {
 +
  touch $persistentDataDir/alarm
 +
}
 +
trap alarm ERR
 +
[ -f $persistentDataDir/alarm ] && exit 1
  
e.g. for bind9:
+
== Make sure only one instance of a script is running at a time ==
  
  # journalctl -f -u bind9
+
  ephemeralDataDir=/var/run/something
 +
unlock() {
 +
  rmdir $ephemeralDataDir/lock
 +
}
 +
mkdir $ephemeralDataDir/lock || exit 1;
 +
trap unlock EXIT
  
or for everything:
+
== BASH programming advice ==
  
# journalctl -f
+
See [https://blog.yossarian.net/2020/01/23/Anybody-can-write-good-bash-with-a-little-effort Anybody can write good bash (with a little effort)].
  
== System status ==
+
== Run a command using arguments that come from an array ==
  
To see spawned services hierarchy:
+
See [https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/412647/356289 here]:
  
  # systemctl status
+
  #!/bin/bash
 +
tabs=("first tab" "second tab")
 +
args=()
 +
for t in "${tabs[@]}" ; do
 +
  args+=(-t "$t")
 +
done
 +
app "${args[@]}"
  
Or for a specific service e.g.:
+
== Display a CSV in columnar or tabular format ==
  
  # systemctl status networking
+
  $ column -t -s , data.csv
  
= SaltStack =
+
== Maximum command line length ==
 +
 
 +
Technically this is an operating system limit, not a BASH limit.
  
== Running a command on specified minions ==
+
$ getconf ARG_MAX    # Get argument limit in bytes/chars
  
salt 'host' cmd.run 'update-locale'
+
= Sed =
  
== Running a command on all minions ==
+
== Find and replace with sed ==
  
salt '*' cmd.run 'update-locale'
+
To update the current file use '-i'. E.g.:
  
== Listing active jobs ==
+
sed -i 's/search-text/replace-text/' file
  
salt-run jobs.active
+
= Awk =
  
== Listing available grains ==
+
== Listing IP addresses in an Apache web log ==
  
  salt 'example' grains.items
+
  awk '/GET \/path\/for\/url/ { print $1 }' /var/log/apache2/access.log | sort | uniq
  
== Listing available pillar ==
+
== Printing space-separated field ==
  
  salt 'example' pillar.items
+
  echo 'no no yes no' | awk '{print $3}'
  
== Reporting a grain value ==
+
== Printing delimited field ==
  
e.g. for the 'mem_total' grain:
+
echo 'no:no:yes:no' | awk -F ':' '{print $3}'
  
salt '*' grains.item mem_total
+
= Subversion =
  
== Passing a variable into a Jinja template from a salt state (SLS) ==
+
== Setting svn:externals from the command-line ==
  
e.g.: to pass 'zabbix_deb_{pkg,url}' variables into the source.txt template:
+
See [http://beerpla.net/2009/06/20/how-to-properly-set-svn-svnexternals-property-in-svn-command-line/ here].
  
<nowiki>/srv/zabbix/release/{{ zabbix_deb_pkg }}.txt:</nowiki>
+
To set an svn:externals from the command-line:
  file.managed:
+
 
    - template: jinja
+
svn propset svn:externals 'rdfind-php https://www.progclub.org/svn/pcrepo/rdfind.php/branches/0.1' .
    - user: root
+
svn ci -m 'Adding svn:externals for rdfind-php...'
    - group: root
+
svn up
    - mode: 644
 
    - source: salt://file/srv/zabbix/release/source.txt
 
    - require:
 
      - file: /srv/zabbix/release
 
    - default:
 
      <nowiki>zabbix_deb_pkg: {{ zabbix_deb_pkg }}</nowiki>
 
      <nowiki>zabbix_deb_url: {{ zabbix_deb_url }}</nowiki>
 
  
= KDE =
+
Or to use a file:
  
== Running user login script (X11/XOrg/XWindows) ==
+
svn propset svn:externals -F svn.externals .
  
A way to run user login scripts which works for KDE Plasma (and apparently other [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X.Org_Server X.Org Server X Window System] environments) is to create a *.desktop file in ~/.config/autostart/. For example I have a ~/.config/autostart/ssh-add.desktop file with the following contents to register my SSH key in the SSH Agent:
+
== Setting svn:ignore from the command line ==
  
[Desktop Entry]
+
See [http://tedone.typepad.com/blog/2010/03/setting-svnignore-from-the-command-line.html here].
Type=Application
 
Name=ssh-add
 
Comment=Adds my private key to my session.
 
Exec=/usr/bin/konsole -e 'ssh-add /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa'
 
  
== Standard KDE shortcut key bindings ==
+
$ svn propset svn:ignore [file|folder] [path]
  
{|class="wikitable"
+
Or use a file and apply recursively:
! Name          !! Shortcut !! Command
 
|-
 
| Insert comment || F1      || xdotool type "$(date +%Y-%m-%d ) $USER - "
 
|-
 
| Insert sydtime || F4      || xdotool type "$(date +%Y-%m-%d-%H%M%S)"
 
|-
 
| Konsole        || Meta+T  || konsole
 
|-
 
| Dolphin        || Meta+E  || dolphin
 
|-
 
| Kate          || Ctrl+Shift+F12 || kate
 
|-
 
| KCalc          || Ctrl+Shift+F11 || kcalc
 
|-
 
| Firefox        || Ctrl+Shift+F10 || firefox
 
|}
 
  
= VirtualBox =
+
$ svn propset svn:ignore -RF ./svn-ignore-list.txt .
  
== Mounting a VirtualBox VDI file ==
+
= Git =
  
Note: instead of doing this consider booting with a live CD.
+
== Showing status of working copy ==
  
See [https://askubuntu.com/questions/19430/mount-a-virtualbox-drive-image-vdi/50290#50290 here]:
+
git status
  
Install qemu if necessary:
+
== Showing repo history ==
  
  # apt install qemu
+
  git log
  
Then you'll need to load the network block device module:
+
== Showing remote repositories (including 'origin') ==
  
  # rmmod nbd
+
  git remote -v
# modprobe nbd max_part=16
 
  
Attach the .vdi image to one of the nbd you just created:
+
== Handy git aliases ==
  
# qemu-nbd -c /dev/nbd0 drive.vdi
+
Save these to your ~/.gitconfig file.
 +
 
 +
For a nicer view of history than standard 'git log' -- colourful, one-line-per commit, etc:
 +
 
 +
  graph = !git log --all --graph --color --abbrev-commit --pretty=oneline
 +
 
 +
To show only the files that have changed, rather than the full line-by-line content:
  
Now you will get a /dev/nbd0 block device, along with several /dev/nbd0p* partition device nodes.
+
  dif  = !git diff --name-status
  
# mount /dev/nbd0p1 /mnt
+
== Show git remote URL ==
  
Once you are done, unmount everything and disconnect the device:
+
git config --get remote.origin.url
  
# qemu-nbd -d /dev/nbd0
+
= IRC =
  
= Elasticsearch =
+
== Instructing ChanServ to op an admin ==
  
== Report on health of your Elasticsearch cluster ==
+
/msg ChanServ op #channel user
  
$ curl http://localhost:9200/_cluster/health?pretty
+
E.g.
  
= Zabbix =
+
/msg ChanServ op #gnurc jj5
  
== Zabbix Agent on Mac OS X ==
+
Sub 'op' for 'deop' to remove op privilege.
  
Download and install agent.
+
= C++ =
  
Config file is here: /usr/local/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf
+
== C++ books ==
  
Unload agent with:
+
=== Books I want ===
  
  # launchctl unload /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.zabbix.zabbix_agentd.plist
+
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1785283073 Boost.Asio C++ Network Programming 2ed]
 +
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1783986549 Boost.Asio C++ Network Programming Cookbook]
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/020170353X Accelerated C++] by Andrew Koening
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321334876 Effective C++] by Scott Meyers
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1491903996 Effective Modern C++] by Scott Meyers
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/020163371X More Effective C++] by Scott Meyers
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201749629 Effective STL] by Scott Meyers
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201615622 Exceptional C++] by Herb Sutter
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/020170434X More Exceptional C++] by Herb Sutter
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201760428 Exceptional C++ Style] by Herb Sutter
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321227255 C++ Template Metaprogramming] by David Abrahams
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/059652269X 97 Things Every Software Architect Should Know] by Richard Monson-Haefel
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/9491028022 Introduction to the Boost C++ Libraries; Volume II - Advanced Libraries] by Robert Demming
 +
 
 +
=== Books I own ===
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321563840 The C++ Programming Language 4ed] by Bjarne Stroustrup
 +
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/9491028022 Introduction to the Boost C++ Libraries; Volume II - Advanced Libraries]
 +
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1849514887 Boost C++ Application Development Cookbook]
 +
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1782163263 Boost.Asio C++ Network Programming]
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321113586 C++ Coding Standards] by Herb Sutter &#x2713;
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201704315 Modern C++ Design] by Andrei Alexandrescu &#x2713;
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0596809484 97 Things Every Programmer Should Know] by Kevlin Henney &#x2713;
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321133544 Beyond the C++ Standard Library] by Björn Karlsson &#x2713;
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/9491028014 Introduction to the Boost C++ Libraries; Volume I - Foundations] by Robert Demming &#x2713;
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0123850037 API Design for C++] by Martin Reddy &#x2713;
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00CB23URA Advanced C++ Metaprogramming] by Davide Di Gennaro &#x2713;
 +
** Note: the next version of this book is: [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1484210115 Advanced Metaprogramming in Classic C++]
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1933988770 C++ Concurrency in Action: Practical Multithreading] by Anthony Williams &#x2713;
 +
 
 +
=== Books I'm not reading ===
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321563840 The C++ Programming Language 3ed] by Bjarne Stroustrup &#x2713;
 +
** Note: 3ed is obsolete. Buy 4ed (above).
 +
 
 +
=== Books I've read ===
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0596004966 C++ Pocket Reference] by Kyle Loudon &#x2713;
 +
 
 +
== C++ blogs/articles ==
 +
 
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/hsutter/ Herb Sutter's MSDN blog]
 +
* [http://herbsutter.com/ Herb Sutter's personal blog]
 +
* [http://herbsutter.com/gotw/ Herb Sutter's Guru of the Week (GotW)] updated from [http://gotw.ca/gotw/ gotw.ca]
 +
 
 +
== C++ performance tips ==
 +
 
 +
* ++c can be faster than c++.
 +
* use const for everything that you possibly can.
 +
* use 'inline' when you need to define a function in a header. Typically only do that if it's small and the increase in code size from inlining is worth the cost to avoid the cost of a function call. For anything except trivially small functions you'll probably need to profile to know if it's worth it.
 +
* don't use registers.
 +
* const [http://www.gotw.ca/gotw/081.htm rarely affects performance].
 +
* debunking a number of [http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg21/docs/TR18015.pdf C++ myths that won't die].
 +
* std::sort<> is typically faster than qsort() because it can avoid indirection at runtime.
 +
* if you've got parallelisation going on, you may be able to just replace a std::for_each with a parallel equivalent.
 +
* read about [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/579887/how-expensive-is-rtti performance cost of RTTI] (Run Time Type Information) and [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4486609/when-can-compiling-c-without-rtti-cause-problems how to disable it]
 +
* don't use dynamic_cast because it is slow (typeid is faster but still relies on RTTI)
 +
* prefer unique_ptr to shared_ptr when possible. unique_ptr has less overhead.
 +
* [http://sunsite.uakom.sk/sunworldonline/swol-02-1996/swol-02-perf.html Which is better, static or dynamic linking?]
 +
* [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2550281/floating-point-vs-integer-calculations-on-modern-hardware Integer vs Floating-Point performance]
 +
 
 +
= systemd =
 +
 
 +
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemd systemd] is an init system used in most Linux distributions to bootstrap the user space and manage all processes subsequently.
 +
 
 +
== Following a service log ==
 +
 
 +
e.g. for bind9:
 +
 
 +
# journalctl -f -u bind9
 +
 
 +
or for everything:
 +
 
 +
# journalctl -f
 +
 
 +
== System status ==
 +
 
 +
To see spawned services hierarchy:
 +
 
 +
# systemctl status
 +
 
 +
Or for a specific service e.g.:
 +
 
 +
# systemctl status networking
 +
 
 +
= SaltStack =
 +
 
 +
== Running a command on specified minions ==
 +
 
 +
From the salt master:
 +
 
 +
salt 'host' cmd.run 'update-locale'
 +
 
 +
From the salt minion:
 +
 
 +
salt-call cmd.run 'update-locale'
 +
 
 +
== Running a command on all minions ==
 +
 
 +
salt '*' cmd.run 'update-locale'
 +
 
 +
== Running a specific state file ==
 +
 
 +
From the salt master:
 +
 
 +
salt $MINION_ID state.sls $STATE_FILE
 +
 
 +
From the salt minion:
 +
 
 +
salt-call state.sls $STATE_FILE
 +
 
 +
== Listing active jobs ==
 +
 
 +
salt-run jobs.active
 +
 
 +
== Listing available grains ==
 +
 
 +
salt 'example' grains.items
 +
 
 +
== Listing available pillar ==
 +
 
 +
salt 'example' pillar.items
 +
 
 +
== Reporting a grain value ==
 +
 
 +
e.g. for the 'mem_total' grain:
 +
 
 +
salt '*' grains.item mem_total
 +
 
 +
== Passing a variable into a Jinja template from a salt state (SLS) ==
 +
 
 +
e.g.: to pass 'zabbix_deb_{pkg,url}' variables into the source.txt template:
 +
 
 +
<nowiki>/srv/zabbix/release/{{ zabbix_deb_pkg }}.txt:</nowiki>
 +
  file.managed:
 +
    - template: jinja
 +
    - user: root
 +
    - group: root
 +
    - mode: 644
 +
    - source: salt://file/srv/zabbix/release/source.txt
 +
    - require:
 +
      - file: /srv/zabbix/release
 +
    - default:
 +
      <nowiki>zabbix_deb_pkg: {{ zabbix_deb_pkg }}</nowiki>
 +
      <nowiki>zabbix_deb_url: {{ zabbix_deb_url }}</nowiki>
 +
 
 +
= KDE =
 +
 
 +
== Running user login script (X11/XOrg/XWindows) ==
 +
 
 +
A way to run user login scripts which works for KDE Plasma (and apparently other [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X.Org_Server X.Org Server X Window System] environments) is to create a *.desktop file in ~/.config/autostart/. For example I have a ~/.config/autostart/ssh-add.desktop file with the following contents to register my SSH key in the SSH Agent:
 +
 
 +
[Desktop Entry]
 +
Type=Application
 +
Name=ssh-add
 +
Comment=Adds my private key to my session.
 +
Exec=/usr/bin/konsole -e 'ssh-add /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa'
 +
 
 +
== Standard KDE shortcut key bindings ==
 +
 
 +
{|class="wikitable"
 +
! Name          !! Shortcut !! Command
 +
|-
 +
| Insert comment || F1      || xdotool type "$(date +%Y-%m-%d ) $USER - "
 +
|-
 +
| Insert sydtime || F4      || xdotool type "$(date +%Y-%m-%d-%H%M%S)"
 +
|-
 +
| Konsole        || Meta+T  || konsole
 +
|-
 +
| Dolphin        || Meta+E  || dolphin
 +
|-
 +
| Kate          || Ctrl+Shift+F12 || kate
 +
|-
 +
| KCalc          || Ctrl+Shift+F11 || kcalc
 +
|-
 +
| Firefox        || Ctrl+Shift+F10 || firefox
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
== Shutting down KDE/Plasma ==
 +
 
 +
# /etc/init.d/sddm stop
 +
 
 +
= VirtualBox =
 +
 
 +
== Mounting a VirtualBox VDI file ==
 +
 
 +
Note: instead of doing this consider booting with a live CD.
 +
 
 +
See [https://askubuntu.com/questions/19430/mount-a-virtualbox-drive-image-vdi/50290#50290 here]:
 +
 
 +
Install qemu if necessary:
 +
 
 +
# apt install qemu
 +
 
 +
Then you'll need to load the network block device module:
 +
 
 +
# rmmod nbd
 +
# modprobe nbd max_part=16
 +
 
 +
Attach the .vdi image to one of the nbd you just created:
 +
 
 +
# qemu-nbd -c /dev/nbd0 drive.vdi
 +
 
 +
Now you will get a /dev/nbd0 block device, along with several /dev/nbd0p* partition device nodes.
 +
 
 +
# mount /dev/nbd0p1 /mnt
 +
 
 +
Once you are done, unmount everything and disconnect the device:
 +
 
 +
# qemu-nbd -d /dev/nbd0
 +
 
 +
= Elasticsearch =
 +
 
 +
== Report on health of your Elasticsearch cluster ==
 +
 
 +
$ curl http://localhost:9200/_cluster/health?pretty
 +
 
 +
= Zabbix =
 +
 
 +
== Zabbix Agent on Mac OS X ==
 +
 
 +
Download and install agent.
 +
 
 +
Config file is here: /usr/local/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf
 +
 
 +
Unload agent with:
 +
 
 +
  # launchctl unload /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.zabbix.zabbix_agentd.plist
 +
 
 +
Load agent with:
 +
 
 +
# launchctl load /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.zabbix.zabbix_agentd.plist
 +
 
 +
To add a 'pki' group:
 +
 
 +
# dseditgroup -o create pki
 +
 
 +
To monitor syslog on Mac OS X:
 +
 
 +
# tail -f /var/log/system.log
 +
 
 +
== Installing Zabbix Agent from source on Mac OS X ==
 +
 
 +
Download sources from https://www.zabbix.com/download_sources
 +
 
 +
$ brew update
 +
$ brew install openssl
 +
$ brew install pcre
 +
jj5@condor:~/Desktop/zabbix-4.4.7$ ./configure --enable-agent --with-openssl=/usr/local/opt/openssl/
 +
jj5@condor:~/Desktop/zabbix-4.4.7$ sudo make install
 +
 
 +
= NetBeans =
 +
 
 +
== NetBeans shortcut keys ==
 +
 
 +
{|class="wikitable sortable"
 +
! Keys        !! Action
 +
|-
 +
| Ctrl+W      || Close active window
 +
|-
 +
| Alt+Shift+K  || Open in Terminal
 +
|-
 +
| Ctrl+U U    || Convert selected text to uppercase
 +
|-
 +
| Ctrl+U L    || Convert selected text to lowercase
 +
|}
  
Load agent with:
+
= XML =
  
# launchctl load /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.zabbix.zabbix_agentd.plist
+
== How to pretty-print an XML file ==
  
To add a 'pki' group:
+
$ xmllint --format input.xml > output.xml
  
# dseditgroup -o create pki
+
= ApacheBench =
  
To monitor syslog on Mac OS X:
+
== Run a benchmark with ApacheBench ==
 
 
# tail -f /var/log/system.log
 
  
== Installing Zabbix Agent from source on Mac OS X ==
+
$ ab -n 1000 -c 100 https://www.example.com/
 
 
Download sources from https://www.zabbix.com/download_sources
 
 
 
$ brew update
 
$ brew install openssl
 
$ brew install pcre
 
jj5@condor:~/Desktop/zabbix-4.4.7$ ./configure --enable-agent --with-openssl=/usr/local/opt/openssl/
 
jj5@condor:~/Desktop/zabbix-4.4.7$ sudo make install
 
 
 
= NetBeans =
 
 
 
== NetBeans shortcut keys ==
 
 
 
{|class="wikitable sortable"
 
! Keys        !! Action
 
|-
 
| Ctrl+W      || Close active window
 
|-
 
| Alt+Shift+K  || Open in Terminal
 
|-
 
| Ctrl+U U    || Convert selected text to uppercase
 
|-
 
| Ctrl+U L    || Convert selected text to lowercase
 
|}
 

Revision as of 00:05, 17 May 2022

Hi there, I'm John. I just wanted a page where I could document various Linux things that I bump into. This is that page. Thank you ProgClub. :)

Note: I have some other disorganised notes on UNIX, which include a few tips for MacOS. I also have some tips for OS X.

Note: the info on this page is probably Ubuntu (and Debian as an outside chance) specific, because I use Ubuntu pretty much everywhere these days.

You might also be interested in John's hacks.

Quick jump to: NetBeans.

References

Command-line

See Shell Commands I Wish I Knew Earlier for some interesting options.

System

Reporting system specifications from the command-line

Try any of these:

# neofetch
# inxi
# hwinfo --short

You may need to install the relevant package.

Determining which Debian/Ubuntu release your are running

$ lsb_release -r

Or for more information:

$ lsb_release

Determining which Linux/Unix you are running

$ uname

Or,

$ uname -mrs

Or,

$ uname -a

Configuring system swappiness

Swappiness is a number between 0 and 100 that regulates how much the system uses the swap file. I like setting this value to 0 to keep my apps as responsive as possible. Create a file /etc/sysctl.d/local.conf and add this line:

vm.swappiness = 0

If you want to set the value for the current session only:

echo 0 > /proc/sys/vm/swappiness

Hardware information

For information about the hardware attached to your system, check out:

# lshw

And for PCI devices:

# lspci

And for DMI info:

# dmidecode

Note that the dmidecode command (above) will give you information about your system's motherboard. For motherboard info look for 'System Information' and/or 'Base Board Information'.

Or the grand daddy of them all:

# hwinfo

There's also inxi, e.g.:

$ inxi -b

System:    Host: tact Kernel: 4.9.0-4-amd64 x86_64 (64 bit) Desktop: KDE Plasma 5.8.6
           Distro: Debian GNU/Linux 9 (stretch)
Machine:   Device: desktop Mobo: ASUSTeK model: STRIX Z270F GAMING v: Rev 1.xx
           UEFI [Legacy]: American Megatrends v: 0906 date: 03/22/2017
CPU:       Quad core Intel Core i7-7700K (-HT-MCP-) speed/max: 799/4600 MHz
Graphics:  Card: Intel Device 5912
           Display Server: X.Org 1.19.2 drivers: modesetting (unloaded: fbdev,vesa)
           Resolution: 1920x1080@60.00hz, 1920x1080@60.00hz
           GLX Renderer: Mesa DRI Intel Kabylake GT2 GLX Version: 3.0 Mesa 13.0.6
Network:   Card: Intel Ethernet Connection (2) I219-V driver: e1000e
Drives:    HDD Total Size: 13026.6GB (42.0% used)
RAID:      Devices: 1: /dev/md1 2: /dev/md0
Info:      Processes: 355 Uptime: 11 days Memory: 21198.3/32043.3MB Client: Shell (bash) inxi: 2.3.5

Motherboard info

# dmidecode -t 2

CPU info

# lscpu

or:

# cat /proc/cpuinfo

RAM info

# dmidecode --type memory

PCI info

# lspci -v

Drive info

# cat /proc/partitions

and:

# hdparm -I /dev/sda

and:

# smartctl --info /dev/sda

You can check if a drive is SSD or not with:

# cat /sys/block/sde/queue/rotational
0=SSD
1=HDD

Viewing syslog and other logs with KSystemLog

Run the 'KSystemLog' program under KDE for a handy log viewer GUI.

CPU

Monitoring CPU clock speed

Try something like this:

$ watch 'grep MHz /proc/cpuinfo | awk "{ print \$4 }" | sort -n'

Power

Reporting on PowerShield DEFENDER UPS status

Before running `upsc` ensure service is running:

# upsdrvctl start

To see the status of the PowerShield DEFENDER systems on John's LAN:

$ upsc defender

E.g.:

jj5@orac:~$ upsc defender
Init SSL without certificate database
battery.charge: 100
battery.voltage: 27.40
battery.voltage.high: 26.00
battery.voltage.low: 20.80
battery.voltage.nominal: 24.0
device.type: ups
driver.name: blazer_usb
driver.parameter.pollinterval: 2
driver.parameter.port: auto
driver.parameter.synchronous: no
driver.version: 2.7.4
driver.version.internal: 0.12
input.current.nominal: 5.0
input.frequency: 50.1
input.frequency.nominal: 50
input.voltage: 242.6
input.voltage.fault: 242.6
input.voltage.nominal: 240
output.voltage: 242.6
ups.beeper.status: disabled
ups.delay.shutdown: 30
ups.delay.start: 180
ups.load: 14
ups.productid: 5161
ups.status: OL
ups.type: offline / line interactive
ups.vendorid: 0665

Run commands on PowerShield DEFENDER UPS batteries

You can run "instant commands" using the upscmd command.

We use the 'beeper.toggle' instant command in our Salt Stack config to disable the beeper, see e.g.:

diligence:/srv/salt/conf/app/defender-1200.sls

To see "instant commands" supported by the PowerShield DEFENDER:

$ upscmd -l defender

E.g.:

jj5@orac:~$ upscmd -l defender
Instant commands supported on UPS [defender]:

beeper.toggle - Toggle the UPS beeper
load.off - Turn off the load immediately
load.on - Turn on the load immediately
shutdown.return - Turn off the load and return when power is back
shutdown.stayoff - Turn off the load and remain off
shutdown.stop - Stop a shutdown in progress
test.battery.start - Start a battery test
test.battery.start.deep - Start a deep battery test
test.battery.start.quick - Start a quick battery test
test.battery.stop - Stop the battery test

Environment

Configuring vim as your editor

Sometimes all you need is:

$ export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim

Which works for svn, for example. Add it to your ~/.profile file to have it set for all login sessions.

Other times you need to run

# update-alternatives --config editor

And then select vim from the list. This is what you do to configure your visudo editor.

Configuring your locale

$ sudo /usr/sbin/locale-gen en_AU.UTF-8
$ sudo /usr/sbin/update-locale LANG=en_AU.UTF-8

User and group management

Adding a user

To add a new user on a linux system:

# useradd username
# passwd username

To have the home directory created from '/etc/skel' use the 'adduser' script instead:

# adduser username

Adding a user to a group

To add an existing user to an existing group:

# gpasswd -a username group

e.g. to add user 'jj5' to the 'sudo' group:

# gpasswd -a jj5 sudo

Alternatively you can use adduser, passing the username and group:

# adduser username group

e.g. to add user 'sclaughl' to the 'staff' group:

# adduser sclaughl staff

Disabling a user account

You can disable a user account with:

# passwd -l user

Note: that's a lower-case L, not a one.

Enabling a disabled user account

To can re-enable a locked user account with:

# passwd -u user

Finding which user you are logged in as

To determine which user you are running as enter the command:

$ whoami

Finding which groups you are a member of

To find which groups you are a member of:

$ groups

or

$ groups username

Where 'username' is the username of the user you are querying, e.g.:

$ groups jj5

Finding who else is logged in to the system

To see who else is logged in,

$ who

Running a command as a particular user

To run "svn update" as the user www-data:

$ sudo su -c "svn update" www-data

Reporting user and group info for the current user

$ id

Memory management

Checking available memory

To report memory statistics in megabytes:

$ free -m

Check for swap thrashing

Check your virtual memory status with vmstat:

$ vmstat

Report memory type

Report on RAM DIMMs:

# dmidecode --type 17

Report on RAM and CPU cache (including L1, L2, and L3):

# lshw -short -C memory

Or for more detail:

# lshw -C memory

Video/display management

Viewing EDID data for attached monitor

To view EDID data for an attached monitor (requires the edid-decode package):

$ cd /sys/class/drm
$ ls
$ cd card0-HDMI-A-1
$ edid-decode edid

Process management

Using 'top' for dynamic resource usage reporting

To run top:

$ top

See 15 Practical Linux Top Command Examples for some hints on usage.

To see usage for a specific user run e.g.:

$ top -u jj5

To see full command-line press 'c'.

When you're in 'top' you can:

  • press '1' (one) to toggle CPU aggregation
  • press < and > to change the sort column

Changing memory reporting in 'top'

To run top:

$ top

Press 'E' to switch between top memory units (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.)

Press 'e' to switch between bottom memory units (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.)

Press 'M' to sort by memory utilisation.

Press 'm' to switch between various display modes.

Showing full command-line in 'top'

To see the full command-line for processes run with -c:

$ top -c

Listing all processes currently running which were started in your current shell session

$ ps -fl

Killing specific processes

# ps aux | grep -e "this\|that" | grep -v grep | tr -s " " | cut -d " " -f 2 | xargs kill -9

Run a command for a specified time using timeout

$ timeout 3 ping jj5.net

Disk management

Reporting ext4 file-systems mounted without noatime

$ cat /proc/mounts | grep ext | grep -v noatime | sort

Creating a partition table

# parted /dev/xvdf
mktable msdos

Creating a partition

# parted /dev/xvdf
u MiB
mkpart primary 1 100%

Creating an ext4 file-system

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdf1

Listing disk drives

# fdisk -l

(That's an L for "list")

Checking available disk space

$ df -h

Getting disk information

# lsblk

And

# cat /proc/partitions

Or the Grand Daddy of them all:

# lshw -class disk

(Requires the lshw package.)

Getting partition UUID and file-system type

# blkid

Checking for SSD vs magnetic disk

# cat /sys/block/sda/queue/rotational

Will be 0 for SSD and 1 for magnetic.

Monitoring a ZFS server

So some commands I run to keep an eye on my new ZFS servers:

# top
# iotop
# nethogs
# watch free -h
# watch slabtop -o
# slabtop
# watch cat /proc/meminfo
# perf top
# watch "df -h | grep -v -e tmpfs -e udev -e by-uuid"
# watch zpool iostat -v
# zpool iostat -v 2
# watch 'zpool list; echo; zfs list'
# watch zfs get compressratio -o all
# watch cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats

If you have a scrub or resilvering in progress you can report on progress with:

# watch zpool status -v

You can poke about in internals, e.g.:

# cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
root@orac:/sys/module/zfs/parameters# tail *

You can report on property values with e.g.:

# zfs get all data

If you want to get funky:

# cd /tmp
# perf record -ag #(Ctrl+C after ~15 seconds)
# perf report --stdio

You can search for ZFS files like e.g. this:

root@orac:/# find / -name '*zfs*' -or -name '*zpool*'

You can report history of a zpool:

# zpool history $poolname

You can get a report on the dedup tables:

# zpool status -D $poolname

Or more detailed dedup table info:

# zdb -DDD $poolname

Note in the output see here for details, basically:

Abbr Description
LSIZE logical size (in memory)
PSIZE physical size
DSIZE size on disk
refcnt reference count

How to tell if zfs scrub is running

You can get the status from the "scan:" line from:

$ zpool status

Measure data throughput

Use the 'pv' command from the 'pv' package, e.g.:

# cat /dev/sda | pv | cat > /dev/null

Or for ZFS:

# zfs send data/example | pv | cat > /dev/null

Using Smartctl, Smartd and Hddtemp on Debian

For notes on using smartctl see Using Smartctl, Smartd and Hddtemp on Debian.

Report hard disk usage

So you might want to know how much data a process reads or writes to a hard disk. You can monitor process total disk utilisation with the 'iotop' command. Run 'iotop' and then press 'a' for --accumulated.

Report hard disk temperatures

E.g.

# hddtemp /dev/sd[a-e]

Burning an ISO image to USB on Mac

First insert your USB key and find the appropriate disk with:

# diskutil list

Then unmount it with:

# diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk4

Then copy ISO image with 'dd':

# dd if=ubuntu-18.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso of=/dev/disk4

You can get dd to report progress by sending it the SIGINFO signal:

# kill -s info 12345

Listing all ext4 file systems

To see a list only of the mounted ext4 file systems:

# df -t ext4

Report hierarchical file system mount points and mount options

$ findmnt

Report the mount point for the current working directory

$ findmnt "$PWD"

Monitoring disk I/O

There's an app for that! iotop.

Using iotop, top for disks

# iotop -oPa

Monitor disk I/O for performance issues

# watch iostat

Or e.g.

# watch iostat -xd /dev/sd[abc]

Or use groupings like this command for 'tact':

$ iostat -g system nvme0n1 -g fast sda sdb -g data sdc sdd -d 2

Monitoring a system

Simple ZFS monitoring

# watch iostat
# iotop
# zpool iostat -v 5
# watch 'hddtemp /dev/sd[a-e]; echo; zpool list; echo; zfs list'
# nethogs
# top

Monitoring temperature

See temperature without third-party apps for:

$ cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/temp

and:

$ paste <(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/type) <(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/temp) | column -s $'\t' -t | sed 's/\(.\)..$/.\1°C/'

Monitoring CPU temperature

$ watch sensors

Monitoring HDD temperature

For e.g. SATA drives sda to sdd:

# watch hddtemp /dev/sd[a-d]

ZFS

How can I determine the current size of the ARC in ZFS, and how does the ARC relate to free or cache memory?

See How can I determine the current size of the ARC in ZFS, and how does the ARC relate to free or cache memory?

$ cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats

Then:

c is the target size of the ARC in bytes
c_max is the maximum size of the ARC in bytes
size is the current size of the ARC in bytes

Stopping a ZFS scrub in progress

# zpool scrub -s $pool

e.g. for the 'data' pool:

# zpool scrub -s data

File management

Listing files by size

Use capital S for Size:

$ ls -S

Listing only directories

$ ls -l | egrep '^d'

Listing only files

$ ls -l | egrep -v '^d'

Listing hidden files

$ ls -al .[!.]*

Creating a symbolic link

$ ln -s /path/to/target link-name

Creating a hard-link

$ ln /path/to/target file-name

Changing the owner of a file

$ chown user:group <files>

E.g.

$ chown jj5:staff README
$ chown root:root *

To apply recursively into sub-directories use -R,

$ chown -R root:root /etc/*

Changing file permissions

Object codes
User Group Other
u g o
Permission codes
Read Write Exectue
r w x
4 2 1
Numeric codes
0 None
1 Execute
2 Write
3 Write, Execute
4 Read
5 Read, Execute
6 Read, Write
7 Read, Write, Execute

See Numeric Mode in Action.

$ chmod <user numeric code><group numeric code><other numeric code> <files>
$ chmod <object codes>+|-<permission codes> <files>

E.g.

$ chmod 600 my-private-file
$ chmod go-rwx my-private-file
$ chmod u+rw my-private-file
$ chmod +x my-script

Updating config files

If you get given a new config file called new.conf and you want to integrate it with your old config file old.conf then:

$ cp old.conf updated.conf
$ merge -A updated.conf new.conf old.conf

Then go through and edit updated.conf resolving all the merge errors, picking and choosing what to update and what to keep. When you're done copy updated.conf to old.conf so it becomes the new config file.

The merge program is a part of the RCS package. If you don't have it:

$ sudo apt-get install rcs

Listing open files

Use lsof to list open files. E.g.:

# lsof

See man lsof for options.

List permissions on a whole directory path

E.g.:

$ namei -om /home/jj5/workspace

Outputs:

f: /home/jj5/workspace/
 drwxr-xr-x root root /
 drwxr-xr-x root root home
 drwxr-xr-x jj5  jj5  jj5
 drwxr-xr-x jj5  jj5  workspace

Counting non-blank lines in a file

E.g.:

$ cat foo.c | sed '/^\s*$/d' | wc -l

Cloning one directory to another with rsync

E.g.:

rsync --acls --xattrs --stats --human-readable --recursive --del --force --times --links --hard-links --executability --numeric-ids --owner --group --perms --sparse --compress-level=0 /data/source/ hostname:/data/target/

Counting number of files in current directory and all subdirectories

$ ls -AlhR . | egrep '^-' | wc -l

Counting number of directories in current directory and all subdirectories

$ ls -AlhR . | egrep '^d' | wc -l

Getting the status of a 'dd' process

First figure out the 'dd' process number, with e.g. 'top' or 'ps aux | grep dd'

Then send the dd process the SIGINFO signal, which for dd process 40947 would be:

# kill -s info 40947

The dd process will report its status in the terminal its running in.

Transferring a large file via FAT32 file system

So the maximum file size supported by a FAT32 file system (commonly used on USB keys) is 4 GB per file. If you have a file larger than 4 GB you can split it into parts and then reassemble the parts once transferred:

$ split -b 4000m input.tgz input.tgz-parts-

Then copy the small files and reassemble:

$ cat input.tgz-parts-* > output.tgz

Find the difference between two directories

$ diif -qr $DIR_A $DIR_B

NFS

List NFS shares

To e.g. show NFS shares on 'love':

$ showmount -e love

Compression

How to use pigz with tar

See here:

$ tar cf - paths-to-archive | pigz --best -p 8 > archive.tgz

Note: don't use --best unless you're being stingy, running without it will be much faster.

Also from here:

Fast pack:

tar -I 'pigz --fast' -cf my.tar.gz whatver

Best pack:

tar -I 'pigz --best' -cf my.tar.gz whatver

Fast unpack:

tar -I pigz -xf my.tar.gz

Best compression with tar

From here:

export GZIP=-9
tar cvzf file.tar.gz /path/to/directory

or

env GZIP=-9 tar cvzf file.tar.gz /path/to/directory

Best parallel compression with pigz

$ pigz --best

Best parallel compression with xz

$ xz -9e -T 0

Reporting compression ratios with xz

e.g.

root@love:/data/image/archive# xz -l *
Strms  Blocks   Compressed Uncompressed  Ratio  Check   Filename
    1       3    372.2 MiB    442.3 MiB  0.841  CRC64   1999.txz
    1      29  5,281.3 MiB  5,542.5 MiB  0.953  CRC64   2001.txz
    1      11  1,364.3 MiB  2,084.3 MiB  0.655  CRC64   2002.txz
    1       9    568.5 MiB  1,660.2 MiB  0.342  CRC64   2003.txz
    1     639     66.8 GiB    119.6 GiB  0.558  CRC64   2004.txz
    1     313     12.7 GiB     58.6 GiB  0.217  CRC64   2005.txz
    1     414     35.0 GiB     77.4 GiB  0.452  CRC64   2006.txz
    1     485     44.5 GiB     90.9 GiB  0.490  CRC64   2007.txz
    1   1,690    150.0 GiB    316.8 GiB  0.473  CRC64   2008.txz
    1       3    457.9 MiB    526.0 MiB  0.871  CRC64   2009.txz
    1     168     27.3 GiB     31.4 GiB  0.868  CRC64   2010.txz
    1       4    477.1 MiB    702.8 MiB  0.679  CRC64   2011.txz
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   12   3,768    344.6 GiB    705.5 GiB  0.488  CRC64   12 files

Symbolic-link management

== Data used by sym-linked files:

This will de-reference the sym-links in the current directory and tell you how much data the files pointed to by the sym-links are using:

jj5@tact:/data/backup/unity/latest$ du -hD * | sort -h

File searching

Finding a file with a particular name

$ find -iname "*some-part-of-the-file-name*"

Will start searching from the current directory, so maybe

$ cd /

first. For a case-sensitive search:

$ find -name "*eXaCT CaSE*"

Finding a file with particular content

To search in /etc/ for a file with particular content:

$ grep -R "search-string" /etc/*

To search the current directory for *.cs files containing the word "Up":

$ find . -name '*.cs' -exec grep --color=auto -H Up {} \;

Finding a list of files with particular content

E.g. to find all the files with the word 'creativity':

$ grep -R creativity . | sed 's/:/ /' | awk '{ print $1 }' | sort | uniq

Using the locate command to find files

$ locate part-of-filename

E.g.

$ locate texvc

Updating locate command's database

# updatedb

Select a random line from a text file

$ shuf -n 1 input.txt

Extra context for grep

If you need to show extra lines before or after your grep results use -B NUM to set how many lines before the match and -A NUM for the number of lines after the match:

$ grep -B 3 -A 1 ...

Job control

Stopping a running process

Press Ctrl+Z to stop a running process.

Listing current jobs and their status

$ jobs

Resuming a stopped job in the backgroud

To resume a stopped process in the background

$ bg %1

where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').

Resuming a stopped job in the foreground

To resume a stopped process in the foreground

$ fg %1

where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').

Killing a stopped job

To kill a job

$ kill %1

where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').

Periodically run a program and watch its output

$ watch /your/command

Debian/Ubuntu package management

Also see Where "is" it? on the Debian Wiki.

configuring debconf

# dpkg-reconfigure debconf 

Set priority to low to get asked detailed questions.

Showing list of installed packages

# dpkg --get-selections

Searching for installed package

# dpkg --get-selections | grep package-name

or

# aptitude search package-name

Showing which files are installed as part of a package

# dpkg -L package-name

Installing a package

# apt-get install package-name

Uninstalling a package

# apt-get remove package-name

Showing system architecture

$ dpkg --print-architecture

Showing which package a file belongs to

$ which echo
/bin/echo
$ dpkg -S /bin/echo
coreutils: /bin/echo
$ dpkg -l | grep coreutils
ii  coreutils                         6.10-6                   The GNU core utilities

Showing package information

$ apt-cache showpkg coreutils

Or for even more information:

$ apt-cache show coreutils

List all installed packages with package version info

dpkg-query -l

Reporting which version of a package is installed

$ dpkg -l | grep package-name

E.g.:

root@hope:~/letsencrypt# dpkg -l | grep augeas
ii  augeas-lenses                   0.7.0-1ubuntu1                 Set of lenses needed by libaugeas0 to parse 
ii  libaugeas0                      0.7.0-1ubuntu1                 The augeas configuration editing library and

Comprehensive upgrade

Try the following:

# apt-get update
# apt-get dist-upgrade
# apt-get autoremove
# apt-get remove $(deborphan)
# update-flashplugin-nonfree --install

Searching all available packages

$ apt-cache search . | sort -d | less

Reporting unattended upgrades status

See here for more info.

# tail -f /var/log/unattended-upgrades/unattended-upgrades.log

Searching for Debian packages and versions

Networking

Determining throughput between two hosts

# apt install iperf3

On the server:

# iperf3 -s

On the client:

# iperf3 -c $SERVER_IP

For more info see: How to test the network speed/throughput between two Linux servers.

net-tools vs iproute2

The older 'net-tools' package has been replaced with 'iproute2' e.g. in stretch.

legacy net-tools commands iproute2 replacement commands
arp ip n (ip neighbor)
ifconfig ip a (ip addr), ip link, ip -s (ip -stats)
iptunnel ip tunnel
iwconfig iw
nameif ip link, ifrename
netstat ss, ip route (for netstat-r), ip -s link (for netstat -i), ip maddr (for netstat-g)
route ip r (ip route)

Restart networking

For servers:

# service networking restart

For desktops:

# service network-manager restart

Pinging with particular packet size

$ ping -M do -s <packet size in bytes> <host>

E.g.

$ ping -M do -s 1400 charity.progclub.org

Setting MSS for a particular IP address on a particular interface

# ip route add <host> dev <interface> advmss <packet size>

E.g.

# ip route add 10.0.0.1 dev eth0 advmss 1400

Dropping configured MMS for a particular IP address

# ip route flush <host>

E.g.

# ip route flush 10.0.0.1

Listing open ports and socket information

Including which process is listening on which port.

# netstat -tulpn

Or use the 'ss' command:

# ss -s
# ss -l
# ss -pl
# ss -o state established '( dport = :smtp or sport = :smtp )'

Listing open IPv4 connections

# lsof -Pnl +M -i4

You might need to install the lsof package:

# apt-get install lsof

Query for DNS MX record

$ nslookup
> server 127.0.0.1
> set q=mx
> mail.blackbrick.com

Query for DNS SOA record

$ dig @ns2.staticmagic.net -t SOA staticmagic.net

Using nmap to list open ports on remote host

To check the 1,000 most common ports:

# nmap server.example.com

Or for a specific port range (e.g. 101 to 102):

# nmap -p 101-102 server.example.com

Or for all ports (1 to 65,535):

# nmap -p- server.example.com

Network monitoring

See here for details. Basically:

  1. Overall bandwidth: nload, bmon, slurm, bwm-ng, cbm, speedometer, netload
  2. Overall bandwidth (batch style output): vnstat, ifstat, dstat, collectl
  3. Bandwidth per socket connection: iftop, iptraf, tcptrack, pktstat, netwatch, trafshow
  4. Bandwidth per process: nethogs

nload

You can watch network traffic in real-time with nload:

# nload -u M

Reporting network (NIC) speed

From here:

# dmesg | grep eth0
# mii-tool -v eth0
# ethtool eth0

Note: use ifconfig to get device name.

Path MTU discovery

To do a Path MTU Discovery, from the iputils-tracepath package:

# tracepath host.example.com

Listing available Ethernet devices

To see a list of NICs available on the host:

$ cat /proc/net/dev

Also

$ ip link

59 Linux Networking commands and scripts

See 59 Linux Networking commands and scripts.

Links

IPTables

Applying firewall rules

For configuration info see this article.

$ sudo vim /etc/iptables.test.rules
$ sudo /sbin/iptables -F
$ sudo /sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.test.rules
$ sudo iptables -L
$ sudo -s
# iptables-save > /etc/iptables.up.rules
# exit

Blocking an IP address with iptables

To drop IP address 1.2.3.4:

# iptables -A INPUT -s 1.2.3.4 -j DROP

ufw

Denying hosts with ufw

See denying hosts with ufw.

Bind9

Viewing Bind9 querylog

$ sudo rndc querylog
$ tail -f /var/log/syslog

IPSec

Disabling IPSec

# setkey -FP

OpenSSL

Debugging IMAPS with OpenSSL

# openssl s_client -connect localhost:993
> a1 LOGIN username@host password
> a2 LOGOUT

Debugging HTTPS with OpenSSL

$ openssl s_client -connect www.example.com:443
GET /example.html HTTP/1.1
host: www.example.com

Links

Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)

Links

SSH

Configuring SSH key login

On the client machine generate a key-pair (if necessary, check for existing ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub):

$ ssh-keygen -t rsa

Copy the public key from the client to the server:

$ scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub user@example.org:

Configure the authorized keys on the server:

$ ssh user@example.org
$ mkdir ~/.ssh
$ chmod go-w .ssh
$ cat ~/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
$ chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
$ rm ~/id_rsa.pub

Tunneling over SSH

For example, connecting a remote MySQL server to the localhost:

$ ssh -L 3306:localhost:3306 jselliot@ssh.progsoc.org

If the machine you want to connect to is not the localhost of the machine you're ssh'ing to,

 $ ssh -L 3306:muspell.progsoc.uts.edu.au:3306 ssh.progsoc.uts.edu.au

The -L stanza is localport:remotehost:remoteport where localport is a port on your machine, forwarded to remoteport on remotehost.

Tunneling over SSH with PuTTY

See Connecting to the MySQL database remotely (via an SSH Tunnel)

  • run putty.exe
  • Connection -> SSH -> Tunnels
    • Port forwarding: source port to 3306
    • destination: 127.0.0.1:3306
    • check Local
    • click Add

Enabling verbose SSH logging

To see what's going on with your ssh connections,

$ ssh -v user@host

Or

$ ssh -vv user@host

Unlocking SSH key for session

jj5@orac:~/.config/autostart$ cat ssh-add.desktop 
[Desktop Entry]
Type=Application
Name=ssh-add
Comment=Adds my private key to my session.
Exec=/usr/bin/konsole -e 'ssh-add /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa'

Links

Standard IO

cat EOF

$ cat > output <<EOF
> text
> EOF
$ cat output
text

Script

Creating a session log with script

$ script -t 2> timing

The session log is in the file 'typescript' and the timing data is in 'timing'.

Replaying a scripted session

$ scriptreplay timing

Uses the default file 'typescript' and the 'timing' file as specified.

Screen

Creating a new screen or reconnecting to a detached screen

$ screen -R

Detaching a screen

$ screen -D

Reconnecting to screen

$ screen -D
$ screen -R

I have a script in ~/bin/reconnect like so,

#!/bin/bash
screen -D
screen -R

This will detach your last screen, and reconnect it on the current terminal.

Scrolling in screen

See How to scroll in GNU Screen. Basically press Ctrl+A ESC then use Page Up and Page Down. Press ESC again to exit copy mode. As usual you can use Ctrl+[ in place of ESC.

tmux

Live collaboration with tmux

User A:

tmux -S /tmp/collab
chmod 777 /tmp/collab

User B:

tmux -S /tmp/collab attach

Vim

First, why Vim?

Read Why, oh WHY, do those #?@! nutheads use vi?

Visual modes

Use 'v' for visual mode, 'V' for visual line mode and Ctrl+V for visual block mode.

Configuring spaces instead of tabs

I use two spaces instead of tabs. To configure, edit your .vimrc file:

$ vim ~/.vimrc

and include the following lines:

set tabstop=2
set shiftwidth=2
set expandtab

Configuring syntax highlighting

See here.

Use:

:syntax on

to turn on syntax highlighting.

Use:

:syntax off

to turn off syntax highlighting.

To always use syntax highlighting:

$ vim ~/.vimrc

and add:

syntax on

To get a list of supported colour schemes open vim and type:

:colorscheme[space][Ctrl+D]

To always use a particular colorscheme edit ~/.vimrc and add (for example):

colorscheme desert

Inserting a TAB character when expandtab is on

The problem here is that you have configured vim to insert spaces, but for a particular file (e.g. a Makefile) you need to insert a character.

Press Ctrl+V TAB to insert a literal tab character.

Or you can disable tab expansion altogether with:

:set expandtab!

Changing 2 space indent to 4 space indent (e.g. for python files)

:%s/^\s*/&&/g

For more information see here.

Recording and replaying a macro

To record a macro press 'q' and then a number between 1 and 9. E.g. press "q1". The macro is now recording. When you've finished issuing your commands press 'q' again to finish recording. To replay a macro press '@' followed by the number of the macro. That is, if you pressed "q1" to record the macro, press "@1" to replay the macro. To replay the last macro again press "@@".

Deleting to end of line

d$

Deleting to beginning of line

d^

Finding text

To search forward for "text":

/text

To search backward for "text":

?text

To repeat the last search in a forward direction press 'n', or to search again backwards press 'N'.

Finding and replacing text

To replace the first instance of "search" on the current line with "destroy":

:s/search/destroy/

To replace all instances of "search" on the current line with "destroy":

:s/search/destroy/g

To replace all instances of "search" on lines 13 to 37 with "destroy":

:13,37 s/search/destroy/g

To replace all instances of "search" in the entire file with "destroy":

:%s/search/destroy/g

Changing DOS/Windows line-endings (CRLF) to Unix line-endings

To set the line-ending to Unix line endings run the command:

:setlocal ff=unix

More information on managing file formats available here.

Disabling auto-indent etc. to paste from clipboard

To disable smart indenting when you're going to paste in text:

:set paste

To turn it off again:

:set nopaste

There's more info in this article: Toggle auto-indenting for code paste

Positioning windows

Use -o for horizontal split, e.g.:

vim -o a.txt b.txt

Use -O for vertical split, e.g.:

vim -o a.txt b.txt

Use ^W to navigate windows then use directional keys h, j, k, l, etc.

Use ^W and < or > to resize windows.

To indent a block of text in Vim

Use the > command. E.g. to indent five lines:

5 > >

Press . (dot) to keep indenting.

Or inside a block (e.g. curly brace, HTML/XML element, etc.) you can put your cursor in the element on on the curly brace and then:

> %

See here for more.

Open a file in a new window/tab

To open a file on the left hand side:

:vert new filename.ext

Note: ':vnew filename.ext' and ':vsp filename.ext' also work.

To open a file at the top:

:new filename.ext

See here for more.

Explore files in Vim

Enter:

:Explore

Switch between Vim tabs

Use gt and gT.

Switch between Vim windows

To toggle between open windows use:

Ctrl+W W

To move in a direction use:

Ctrl+W h/j/k/l

See here for more.

Insert block comment in Vim

See here for line-commenting.

So it's:

  1. Ctrl+V (Note: not Shift+V!)
  2. Up/Down to select rows
  3. Shift+I
  4. Enter your text, e.g. '#' or '//'
  5. Ctrl+[ (or 'Esc')

Navigate to matching tag

To navigate to the matching beginning or end tag use '%'.

You can also use e.g. '[{' to match the previous '{', or e.g. '])' to match the next ')'.

Auto-format HTML tags

Stolen from here.

  1. first join all the lines - ggVGgJ
  2. Now break tags to new lines - :%s/>\s*</>\r</g
  3. Now set filetype - :set ft=html (you can do this before too)
  4. Now Indent - ggVG=

Links

Create PDF from text using Vim

Generate PDF from input.txt with:

$ vim input.txt -c "hardcopy > doc.ps | q" && ps2pdf doc.ps

Examine output with:

$ okular doc.pdf

Write

Talking to other users on the system

write is a unix command for talking to other users on the system. To use write:

1. SSH to <username>@<hostname> and login with your username and password.

2. Issue the following command to find out who is logged onto the system:

$ who

3. Issue the following command to talk to a specific user:

$ write <username>

4. Enter the message you'd like to send the user, followed by Ctrl+C to send. Press Ctrl+D to cancel.

Date

Reporting the time on the server

$ date

Reporting UTC time

$ date --utc

Getting the date in yyyy-MM-dd-hhmmss format

$ date="`date +%F-%H%M%S`"

Getting the year in four digits

$ year="`date +%Y`"

Getting the month in two digits

$ month="`date +%m`"

Getting the day of the month in two digits

$ day="`date +%d`"

Getting yesterday's date

$ date --date='1 day ago' +%Y-%m-%d

Converting Unix time (seconds since epoch)

For timestamp '1501370200':

$ date -d @1501370200 +%F-%H%M%S

Running timedatectl from systemd

There's a new command bundled with systmed:

# timedatectl

It reports on (and controls) how the system time is configured.

MySQL (and MariaDB)

Run mysql without authentication/authorisation

# service mysql stop
# mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables &

Then you can connect without a password, e.g.:

# mysql -u root mysql

To stop the unauthenticated service:

# mysqladmin shutdown

Then restart a normal service:

# service mysql start

Logging all database queries

# vim /etc/mysql/my.cnf

In the [mysqld] section add:

log=/tmp/mysql.log

Then:

# service mysql restart

Watch the log with:

# tail -f /tmp/mysql.log

Or:

SET GLOBAL log_output = 'FILE';
SET GLOBAL general_log_file = 'my_logs.txt';
SET GLOBAL general_log = 'ON';

my_logs.txt will be in /var/lib/mysql

Dumping a MySQL database

You can dump the database into a file using:

$ mysqldump -h hostname -u user --password=password databasename > filename

Loading a MySQL database from a dump file

You can create a database using:

$ echo create database databasename | mysql -h hostname -u user -p

You can restore a database using:

$ mysql -h hostname -u user --password=password databasename < filename

Creating a MySQL user

# mysql -h localhost -u root --password=<password>
mysql> create user 'username'@'localhost' identified by '<password>';

Granting all MySQL user permissions

# mysql -h localhost -u root --password=<password>
mysql> grant all privileges on dbname.* to user@host;

Select domain name from email address

SELECT SUBSTR( email, INSTR( email, '@' ) + 1 )

Check if MySQL connection is encrypted with TLS/SSL

Check the SSL version in use:

show status like 'Ssl_version';

Or check the cipher in use:

show status like 'Ssl_cipher';

Report on server config

See SHOW Statements for the full list, but check out:

SHOW VARIABLES

and

SHOW STATUS

and

SHOW PROCESSLIST

Monitor MySQL activity

$ watch "mysql -t -e 'show processlist'"

Apache

Reporting loaded Apache modules

# apache2ctl -M

Maintaining .htaccess passwords

To add or modify the password for a user:

$ htpasswd /etc/apache2/passwd username

Configuring PHP session timeout in .htaccess

For a session timeout of 9 hours:

php_value session.cookie_lifetime 32400
php_value session.gc_maxlifetime 32400

Disabling PHP magic quotes in .htaccess

php_flag magic_quotes_gpc Off

Requiring HTTP Auth in .htaccess

AuthType Basic
AuthName "Speak Friend And Enter"
AuthUserFile /home/jj5/.htpasswd
Require valid-user

Restarting Apache

The hard way

$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

The graceful way (avoids dropping active connections)

$ sudo apache2ctl graceful

Allowing directory browsing

To show directory index pages, in the apache config file:

<Directory /var/www/data>
  Options Indexes
</Directory>

C

Locating memset function

The memset function is in <string.h> as described in this article Using memset(), memcpy(), and memmove() in C

Links

PHP

Including a file relative to the including file

require_once( dirname( __FILE__ ) . '/relative/path/to.php' );

Enabling error reporting

error_reporting( E_ALL | E_STRICT );
ini_set( 'display_errors', 'On' );

Setting an error handler

set_error_handler( "error_handler", E_ALL | E_STRICT );
function error_handler( $error_code, $error_message, $error_file, $error_line, $error_context ) {
  // ...
}

Disable HTML content in var_dump

ini_set( 'html_errors', 'off' );

Report PHP modules

$ php -m

PHP Security Best Practices For Sys Admins

See Linux 25 PHP Security Best Practices For Sys Admins.

BASH scripting

For a primer on bash scripting see TFM: Erotic Fantasy: /bin/sh Programming.

Telling a script to run in bash

The first line of the file should be:

#!/bin/bash

Checking if a command-line argument was passed in

if [ -n "$1" ]; then
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
  exit 1;
fi

Checking if a command-line argument was not passed in

if [ "$1" = "" ]; then
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
  exit 1;
fi

Or:

if [ -z "$1" ]; then
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
  exit 1;
fi

Checking command exit status

cd /my/path
if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
  echo "Cannot change dir.";
  exit 1;
fi

Checking if a file does/doesn't exist

Check if file exists:

if [ -f "/my/file" ]; then
  cat /my/file
fi

Check if file doesn't exist:

if [ ! -f "/my/file" ]; then
  touch /my/file
fi

Checking if a directory does/doesn't exist

Check if directory exists:

if [ -d "/my/dir" ]; then
  rmdir /my/dir
fi

Check if directory doesn't exist:

if [ ! -d "/my/dir" ]; then
  mkdir /my/dir
fi

Deleting old backups

To keep only the latest five backups:

find . -maxdepth 1 -type f -printf '%T@ %p\0' | sort -r -z -n | awk 'BEGIN { RS="\0"; ORS="\0"; FS="" } NR > 5 { sub("^[0-9]*(.[0-9]*)? ", ""); print }' | xargs -0 rm -f

This script stolen from stackoverflow.

Requires GNU find for -printf, GNU sort for -z, GNU awk for "\0" and GNU xargs for -0, but handles files with embedded newlines or spaces.

Changing into the script's directory

cd "`dirname $0`"

Getting the absolute path of a relative path

readlink -f ./some/path

Creating a temp directory

dir=`mktemp -d` && cd $dir

Reading secret input from stdin

You can read a secret, such as a password, like this:

echo -n "Enter passphrase: "
stty -echo
read passphrase;
stty echo
echo ""

After running the above the secret will be in the $passphrase environment variable.

String replacements in bash

See the string manipulation doco. Basically, to replace first occurrence:

result=${var/find/replace}

To replace all occurrences:

result=${var//find/replace}

A practical example, get an ISO date and turn it into a path:

date="$(date +%Y-%m-%d)"
work_dir=${date//-//}

Sending a HEREDOC to a file

cat << EOF > /tmp/yourfilehere
These contents will be written to the file.
        This line is indented.
EOF

Bash case/switch statement

See using case statements, e.g.:

case $space in
[1-6]*)
  Message="All is quiet."
  ;;
[7-8]*)
  Message="Start thinking about cleaning out some stuff.  There's a partition that is $space % full."
  ;;
9[1-8])
  Message="Better hurry with that new disk...  One partition is $space % full."
  ;;
99)
  Message="I'm drowning here!  There's a partition at $space %!"
  ;;
*)
  Message="I seem to be running with an nonexistent amount of disk space..."
  ;;
esac

Using dotglob shopt to match dot-files

To enable dot-file matching in globs, set the dotglob shell option:

$ shopt -s dotglob

Stopping a script from running if it previously exited due to error

persistentDataDir=/var/lib/something
alarm() {
  touch $persistentDataDir/alarm
}
trap alarm ERR
[ -f $persistentDataDir/alarm ] && exit 1

Make sure only one instance of a script is running at a time

ephemeralDataDir=/var/run/something
unlock() {
  rmdir $ephemeralDataDir/lock
}
mkdir $ephemeralDataDir/lock || exit 1;
trap unlock EXIT

BASH programming advice

See Anybody can write good bash (with a little effort).

Run a command using arguments that come from an array

See here:

#!/bin/bash
tabs=("first tab" "second tab")
args=()
for t in "${tabs[@]}" ; do 
  args+=(-t "$t")
done
app "${args[@]}"

Display a CSV in columnar or tabular format

$ column -t -s , data.csv

Maximum command line length

Technically this is an operating system limit, not a BASH limit.

$ getconf ARG_MAX    # Get argument limit in bytes/chars

Sed

Find and replace with sed

To update the current file use '-i'. E.g.:

sed -i 's/search-text/replace-text/' file

Awk

Listing IP addresses in an Apache web log

awk '/GET \/path\/for\/url/ { print $1 }' /var/log/apache2/access.log | sort | uniq

Printing space-separated field

echo 'no no yes no' | awk '{print $3}'

Printing delimited field

echo 'no:no:yes:no' | awk -F ':' '{print $3}'

Subversion

Setting svn:externals from the command-line

See here.

To set an svn:externals from the command-line:

svn propset svn:externals 'rdfind-php https://www.progclub.org/svn/pcrepo/rdfind.php/branches/0.1' .
svn ci -m 'Adding svn:externals for rdfind-php...'
svn up

Or to use a file:

svn propset svn:externals -F svn.externals .

Setting svn:ignore from the command line

See here.

$ svn propset svn:ignore [file|folder] [path]

Or use a file and apply recursively:

$ svn propset svn:ignore -RF ./svn-ignore-list.txt .

Git

Showing status of working copy

git status

Showing repo history

git log

Showing remote repositories (including 'origin')

git remote -v

Handy git aliases

Save these to your ~/.gitconfig file.

For a nicer view of history than standard 'git log' -- colourful, one-line-per commit, etc:

 graph = !git log --all --graph --color --abbrev-commit --pretty=oneline

To show only the files that have changed, rather than the full line-by-line content:

 dif   = !git diff --name-status

Show git remote URL

git config --get remote.origin.url

IRC

Instructing ChanServ to op an admin

/msg ChanServ op #channel user

E.g.

/msg ChanServ op #gnurc jj5

Sub 'op' for 'deop' to remove op privilege.

C++

C++ books

Books I want

Books I own

Books I'm not reading

Books I've read

C++ blogs/articles

C++ performance tips

  • ++c can be faster than c++.
  • use const for everything that you possibly can.
  • use 'inline' when you need to define a function in a header. Typically only do that if it's small and the increase in code size from inlining is worth the cost to avoid the cost of a function call. For anything except trivially small functions you'll probably need to profile to know if it's worth it.
  • don't use registers.
  • const rarely affects performance.
  • debunking a number of C++ myths that won't die.
  • std::sort<> is typically faster than qsort() because it can avoid indirection at runtime.
  • if you've got parallelisation going on, you may be able to just replace a std::for_each with a parallel equivalent.
  • read about performance cost of RTTI (Run Time Type Information) and how to disable it
  • don't use dynamic_cast because it is slow (typeid is faster but still relies on RTTI)
  • prefer unique_ptr to shared_ptr when possible. unique_ptr has less overhead.
  • Which is better, static or dynamic linking?
  • Integer vs Floating-Point performance

systemd

systemd is an init system used in most Linux distributions to bootstrap the user space and manage all processes subsequently.

Following a service log

e.g. for bind9:

# journalctl -f -u bind9

or for everything:

# journalctl -f

System status

To see spawned services hierarchy:

# systemctl status

Or for a specific service e.g.:

# systemctl status networking

SaltStack

Running a command on specified minions

From the salt master:

salt 'host' cmd.run 'update-locale'

From the salt minion:

salt-call cmd.run 'update-locale'

Running a command on all minions

salt '*' cmd.run 'update-locale'

Running a specific state file

From the salt master:

salt $MINION_ID state.sls $STATE_FILE

From the salt minion:

salt-call state.sls $STATE_FILE

Listing active jobs

salt-run jobs.active

Listing available grains

salt 'example' grains.items

Listing available pillar

salt 'example' pillar.items

Reporting a grain value

e.g. for the 'mem_total' grain:

salt '*' grains.item mem_total

Passing a variable into a Jinja template from a salt state (SLS)

e.g.: to pass 'zabbix_deb_{pkg,url}' variables into the source.txt template:

/srv/zabbix/release/{{ zabbix_deb_pkg }}.txt:
  file.managed:
    - template: jinja
    - user: root
    - group: root
    - mode: 644
    - source: salt://file/srv/zabbix/release/source.txt
    - require:
      - file: /srv/zabbix/release
    - default:
      zabbix_deb_pkg: {{ zabbix_deb_pkg }}
      zabbix_deb_url: {{ zabbix_deb_url }}

KDE

Running user login script (X11/XOrg/XWindows)

A way to run user login scripts which works for KDE Plasma (and apparently other X.Org Server X Window System environments) is to create a *.desktop file in ~/.config/autostart/. For example I have a ~/.config/autostart/ssh-add.desktop file with the following contents to register my SSH key in the SSH Agent:

[Desktop Entry]
Type=Application
Name=ssh-add
Comment=Adds my private key to my session.
Exec=/usr/bin/konsole -e 'ssh-add /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa'

Standard KDE shortcut key bindings

Name Shortcut Command
Insert comment F1 xdotool type "$(date +%Y-%m-%d ) $USER - "
Insert sydtime F4 xdotool type "$(date +%Y-%m-%d-%H%M%S)"
Konsole Meta+T konsole
Dolphin Meta+E dolphin
Kate Ctrl+Shift+F12 kate
KCalc Ctrl+Shift+F11 kcalc
Firefox Ctrl+Shift+F10 firefox

Shutting down KDE/Plasma

# /etc/init.d/sddm stop

VirtualBox

Mounting a VirtualBox VDI file

Note: instead of doing this consider booting with a live CD.

See here:

Install qemu if necessary:

# apt install qemu

Then you'll need to load the network block device module:

# rmmod nbd
# modprobe nbd max_part=16

Attach the .vdi image to one of the nbd you just created:

# qemu-nbd -c /dev/nbd0 drive.vdi

Now you will get a /dev/nbd0 block device, along with several /dev/nbd0p* partition device nodes.

# mount /dev/nbd0p1 /mnt

Once you are done, unmount everything and disconnect the device:

# qemu-nbd -d /dev/nbd0

Elasticsearch

Report on health of your Elasticsearch cluster

$ curl http://localhost:9200/_cluster/health?pretty

Zabbix

Zabbix Agent on Mac OS X

Download and install agent.

Config file is here: /usr/local/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf

Unload agent with:

# launchctl unload /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.zabbix.zabbix_agentd.plist

Load agent with:

# launchctl load /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.zabbix.zabbix_agentd.plist

To add a 'pki' group:

# dseditgroup -o create pki

To monitor syslog on Mac OS X:

# tail -f /var/log/system.log

Installing Zabbix Agent from source on Mac OS X

Download sources from https://www.zabbix.com/download_sources

$ brew update
$ brew install openssl
$ brew install pcre
jj5@condor:~/Desktop/zabbix-4.4.7$ ./configure --enable-agent --with-openssl=/usr/local/opt/openssl/
jj5@condor:~/Desktop/zabbix-4.4.7$ sudo make install

NetBeans

NetBeans shortcut keys

Keys Action
Ctrl+W Close active window
Alt+Shift+K Open in Terminal
Ctrl+U U Convert selected text to uppercase
Ctrl+U L Convert selected text to lowercase

XML

How to pretty-print an XML file

$ xmllint --format input.xml > output.xml

ApacheBench

Run a benchmark with ApacheBench

$ ab -n 1000 -c 100 https://www.example.com/