Difference between revisions of "John's Linux page"

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Note: the info on this page is probably Ubuntu (and Debian as an outside chance) specific, because I use Ubuntu pretty much everywhere these days.
 
Note: the info on this page is probably Ubuntu (and Debian as an outside chance) specific, because I use Ubuntu pretty much everywhere these days.
 +
 +
You might also be interested in [[John's hacks]].
  
 
Quick jump to: [[#NetBeans|NetBeans]].
 
Quick jump to: [[#NetBeans|NetBeans]].
 +
 +
= References =
 +
 +
== Command-line ==
 +
 +
See [https://zaiste.net/posts/shell-commands-rust/ Shell Commands I Wish I Knew Earlier] for some interesting options.
  
 
= System =
 
= System =
 +
 +
== Reporting system specifications from the command-line ==
 +
 +
Try any of these:
 +
 +
# neofetch
 +
# inxi
 +
# hwinfo --short
 +
 +
You may need to install the relevant package.
  
 
== Determining which Debian/Ubuntu release your are running ==
 
== Determining which Debian/Ubuntu release your are running ==
Line 44: Line 62:
  
 
  # lshw
 
  # lshw
 
And for CPUs:
 
 
# lscpu
 
  
 
And for PCI devices:
 
And for PCI devices:
Line 56: Line 70:
  
 
  # dmidecode
 
  # dmidecode
 +
 +
Note that the dmidecode command (above) will give you information about your system's motherboard. For motherboard info look for 'System Information' and/or 'Base Board Information'.
  
 
Or the grand daddy of them all:
 
Or the grand daddy of them all:
Line 79: Line 95:
 
  Info:      Processes: 355 Uptime: 11 days Memory: 21198.3/32043.3MB Client: Shell (bash) inxi: 2.3.5
 
  Info:      Processes: 355 Uptime: 11 days Memory: 21198.3/32043.3MB Client: Shell (bash) inxi: 2.3.5
  
== Viewing syslog and other logs with KSystemLog ==
+
=== Motherboard info ===
 +
 
 +
# dmidecode -t 2
 +
 
 +
=== CPU info ===
 +
 
 +
# lscpu
 +
 
 +
or:
 +
 
 +
# cat /proc/cpuinfo
  
Run the 'KSystemLog' program under KDE for a handy log viewer GUI.
+
=== RAM info ===
  
= Power =
+
# dmidecode --type memory
  
== Reporting on PowerShield DEFENDER UPS status ==
+
=== PCI info ===
  
To see the status of the [https://powershield.com.au/powersheild_product/defender/ PowerShield DEFENDER] systems on John's LAN:
+
# lspci -v
  
$ upsc defender
+
=== Drive info ===
  
E.g.:
+
# cat /proc/partitions
  
jj5@orac:~$ upsc defender
+
and:
Init SSL without certificate database
 
battery.charge: 100
 
battery.voltage: 27.40
 
battery.voltage.high: 26.00
 
battery.voltage.low: 20.80
 
battery.voltage.nominal: 24.0
 
device.type: ups
 
driver.name: blazer_usb
 
driver.parameter.pollinterval: 2
 
driver.parameter.port: auto
 
driver.parameter.synchronous: no
 
driver.version: 2.7.4
 
driver.version.internal: 0.12
 
input.current.nominal: 5.0
 
input.frequency: 50.1
 
input.frequency.nominal: 50
 
input.voltage: 242.6
 
input.voltage.fault: 242.6
 
input.voltage.nominal: 240
 
output.voltage: 242.6
 
ups.beeper.status: disabled
 
ups.delay.shutdown: 30
 
ups.delay.start: 180
 
ups.load: 14
 
ups.productid: 5161
 
ups.status: OL
 
ups.type: offline / line interactive
 
ups.vendorid: 0665
 
  
== Run commands on PowerShield DEFENDER UPS batteries ==
+
# hdparm -I /dev/sda
  
You can run "instant commands" using the '''upscmd''' command.
+
and:
  
We use the 'beeper.toggle' instant command in our Salt Stack config to disable the beeper, see e.g.:
+
# smartctl --info /dev/sda
  
diligence:/srv/salt/conf/app/defender-1200.sls
+
You can check if a drive is SSD or not with:
  
To see "instant commands" supported by the PowerShield DEFENDER:
+
# cat /sys/block/sde/queue/rotational
  
  $ upscmd -l defender
+
  0=SSD
 +
1=HDD
  
E.g.:
+
== Viewing syslog and other logs with KSystemLog ==
  
jj5@orac:~$ upscmd -l defender
+
Run the 'KSystemLog' program under KDE for a handy log viewer GUI.
Instant commands supported on UPS [defender]:
 
 
beeper.toggle - Toggle the UPS beeper
 
load.off - Turn off the load immediately
 
load.on - Turn on the load immediately
 
shutdown.return - Turn off the load and return when power is back
 
shutdown.stayoff - Turn off the load and remain off
 
shutdown.stop - Stop a shutdown in progress
 
test.battery.start - Start a battery test
 
test.battery.start.deep - Start a deep battery test
 
test.battery.start.quick - Start a quick battery test
 
test.battery.stop - Stop the battery test
 
  
= Environment =
+
= CPU =
  
== Configuring vim as your editor ==
+
== Monitoring CPU clock speed ==
  
Sometimes all you need is:
+
Try something like this:
  
  $ export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim
+
  $ watch 'grep MHz /proc/cpuinfo | awk "{ print \$4 }" | sort -n'
  
Which works for svn, for example. Add it to your ~/.profile file to have it set for all login sessions.
+
= Power =
  
Other times you need to run
+
== Reporting on PowerShield DEFENDER UPS status ==
  
# update-alternatives --config editor
+
Before running `upsc` ensure service is running:
  
And then select vim from the list. This is what you do to configure your visudo editor.
+
# upsdrvctl start
  
== Configuring your locale ==
+
To see the status of the [https://powershield.com.au/powersheild_product/defender/ PowerShield DEFENDER] systems on John's LAN:
  
  $ sudo /usr/sbin/locale-gen en_AU.UTF-8
+
  $ upsc defender
$ sudo /usr/sbin/update-locale LANG=en_AU.UTF-8
 
  
= User and group management =
+
E.g.:
  
== Adding a user ==
+
jj5@orac:~$ upsc defender
 +
Init SSL without certificate database
 +
battery.charge: 100
 +
battery.voltage: 27.40
 +
battery.voltage.high: 26.00
 +
battery.voltage.low: 20.80
 +
battery.voltage.nominal: 24.0
 +
device.type: ups
 +
driver.name: blazer_usb
 +
driver.parameter.pollinterval: 2
 +
driver.parameter.port: auto
 +
driver.parameter.synchronous: no
 +
driver.version: 2.7.4
 +
driver.version.internal: 0.12
 +
input.current.nominal: 5.0
 +
input.frequency: 50.1
 +
input.frequency.nominal: 50
 +
input.voltage: 242.6
 +
input.voltage.fault: 242.6
 +
input.voltage.nominal: 240
 +
output.voltage: 242.6
 +
ups.beeper.status: disabled
 +
ups.delay.shutdown: 30
 +
ups.delay.start: 180
 +
ups.load: 14
 +
ups.productid: 5161
 +
ups.status: OL
 +
ups.type: offline / line interactive
 +
ups.vendorid: 0665
  
To add a new user on a linux system:
+
== Run commands on PowerShield DEFENDER UPS batteries ==
  
# useradd username
+
You can run "instant commands" using the '''upscmd''' command.
# passwd username
 
  
To have the home directory created from '/etc/skel' use the 'adduser' script instead:
+
We use the 'beeper.toggle' instant command in our Salt Stack config to disable the beeper, see e.g.:
  
  # adduser username
+
  diligence:/srv/salt/conf/app/defender-1200.sls
  
== Adding a user to a group ==
+
To see "instant commands" supported by the PowerShield DEFENDER:
  
To add an existing user to an existing group:
+
$ upscmd -l defender
  
# gpasswd -a username group
+
E.g.:
  
e.g. to add user 'jj5' to the 'sudo' group:
+
jj5@orac:~$ upscmd -l defender
 +
Instant commands supported on UPS [defender]:
 +
 +
beeper.toggle - Toggle the UPS beeper
 +
load.off - Turn off the load immediately
 +
load.on - Turn on the load immediately
 +
shutdown.return - Turn off the load and return when power is back
 +
shutdown.stayoff - Turn off the load and remain off
 +
shutdown.stop - Stop a shutdown in progress
 +
test.battery.start - Start a battery test
 +
test.battery.start.deep - Start a deep battery test
 +
test.battery.start.quick - Start a quick battery test
 +
test.battery.stop - Stop the battery test
  
# gpasswd -a jj5 sudo
+
= Environment =
  
Alternatively you can use adduser, passing the username and group:
+
== Configuring vim as your editor ==
  
# adduser username group
+
Sometimes all you need is:
  
e.g. to add user 'sclaughl' to the 'staff' group:
+
$ export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim
  
# adduser sclaughl staff
+
Which works for svn, for example. Add it to your ~/.profile file to have it set for all login sessions.
  
== Disabling a user account ==
+
Other times you need to run
  
You can disable a user account with:
+
# update-alternatives --config editor
  
# passwd -l user
+
And then select vim from the list. This is what you do to configure your visudo editor.
  
Note: that's a lower-case L, not a one.
+
== Configuring your locale ==
  
== Enabling a disabled user account ==
+
$ sudo /usr/sbin/locale-gen en_AU.UTF-8
 +
$ sudo /usr/sbin/update-locale LANG=en_AU.UTF-8
  
To can re-enable a locked user account with:
+
= User and group management =
  
# passwd -u user
+
== Adding a user ==
  
== Finding which user you are logged in as ==
+
To add a new user on a linux system:
  
To determine which user you are running as enter the command:
+
# useradd username
 +
# passwd username
  
$ whoami
+
To have the home directory created from '/etc/skel' use the 'adduser' script instead:
  
== Finding which groups you are a member of ==
+
# adduser username
  
To find which groups you are a member of:
+
== Adding a user to a group ==
  
$ groups
+
To add an existing user to an existing group:
  
or
+
# gpasswd -a username group
  
$ groups username
+
e.g. to add user 'jj5' to the 'sudo' group:
  
Where 'username' is the username of the user you are querying, e.g.:
+
# gpasswd -a jj5 sudo
  
$ groups jj5
+
Alternatively you can use adduser, passing the username and group:
  
== Finding who else is logged in to the system ==
+
# adduser username group
  
To see who else is logged in,
+
e.g. to add user 'sclaughl' to the 'staff' group:
  
  $ who
+
  # adduser sclaughl staff
  
== Running a command as a particular user ==
+
== Disabling a user account ==
  
To run "svn update" as the user www-data:
+
You can disable a user account with:
  
  $ sudo su -c "svn update" www-data
+
  # passwd -l user
  
== Reporting user and group info for the current user ==
+
Note: that's a lower-case L, not a one.
  
$ id
+
== Enabling a disabled user account ==
  
= Memory management =
+
To can re-enable a locked user account with:
  
== Checking available memory ==
+
# passwd -u user
  
To report memory statistics in megabytes:
+
== Finding which user you are logged in as ==
  
$ free -m
+
To determine which user you are running as enter the command:
  
== Check for swap thrashing ==
+
$ whoami
  
Check your virtual memory status with vmstat:
+
== Finding which groups you are a member of ==
  
$ vmstat
+
To find which groups you are a member of:
  
== Report memory type ==
+
$ groups
  
Report on RAM DIMMs:
+
or
  
  # dmidecode --type 17
+
  $ groups username
  
Report on RAM and CPU cache:
+
Where 'username' is the username of the user you are querying, e.g.:
  
  # lshw -short -C memory
+
  $ groups jj5
  
Or for more detail:
+
== Finding who else is logged in to the system ==
  
# lshw -C memory
+
To see who else is logged in,
  
= Video/display management =
+
$ who
  
== Viewing EDID data for attached monitor ==
+
== Running a command as a particular user ==
  
To view [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Display_Identification_Data EDID] data for an attached monitor (requires the [https://packages.debian.org/stable/main/edid-decode edid-decode] package):
+
To run "svn update" as the user www-data:
  
  $ cd /sys/class/drm
+
  $ sudo su -c "svn update" www-data
$ ls
 
$ cd card0-HDMI-A-1
 
$ edid-decode edid
 
  
= Process management =
+
== Reporting user and group info for the current user ==
  
== Using 'top' for dynamic resource usage reporting ==
+
$ id
  
To run top:
+
= Memory management =
  
$ top
+
== Checking available memory ==
  
See [https://www.thegeekstuff.com/2010/01/15-practical-unix-linux-top-command-examples/ 15 Practical Linux Top Command Examples] for some hints on usage.
+
To report memory statistics in megabytes:
  
To see usage for a specific user run e.g.:
+
$ free -m
  
$ top -u jj5
+
== Check for swap thrashing ==
  
To see full command-line press 'c'.
+
Check your virtual memory status with vmstat:
  
When you're in 'top' you can:
+
$ vmstat
  
* press '1' (one) to toggle CPU aggregation
+
== Report memory type ==
* press < and > to change the sort column
 
  
== Changing memory reporting in 'top' ==
+
Report on RAM DIMMs:
  
To run top:
+
# dmidecode --type 17
  
$ top
+
Report on RAM and CPU cache (including L1, L2, and L3):
  
Press 'E' to switch between top memory units (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.)
+
# lshw -short -C memory
  
Press 'e' to switch between bottom memory units (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.)
+
Or for more detail:
  
Press 'M' to sort by memory utilisation.
+
# lshw -C memory
  
Press 'm' to switch between various display modes.
+
= Video/display management =
  
== Showing full command-line in 'top' ==
+
== Viewing EDID data for attached monitor ==
  
To see the full command-line for processes run with -c:
+
To view [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Display_Identification_Data EDID] data for an attached monitor (requires the [https://packages.debian.org/stable/main/edid-decode edid-decode] package):
  
  $ top -c
+
  $ cd /sys/class/drm
 +
$ ls
 +
$ cd card0-HDMI-A-1
 +
$ edid-decode edid
  
== Listing all processes currently running which were started in your current shell session ==
+
= Process management =
  
$ ps -fl
+
== Using 'top' for dynamic resource usage reporting ==
  
== Killing specific processes ==
+
To run top:
  
  # ps aux | grep -e "this\|that" | grep -v grep | tr -s " " | cut -d " " -f 2 | xargs kill -9
+
  $ top
  
= Disk management =
+
See [https://www.thegeekstuff.com/2010/01/15-practical-unix-linux-top-command-examples/ 15 Practical Linux Top Command Examples] for some hints on usage.
  
== Creating a partition table ==
+
To see usage for a specific user run e.g.:
  
  # parted /dev/xvdf
+
  $ top -u jj5
  
mktable msdos
+
To see full command-line press 'c'.
  
== Creating a partition ==
+
When you're in 'top' you can:
  
# parted /dev/xvdf
+
* press '1' (one) to toggle CPU aggregation
 +
* press < and > to change the sort column
  
u MiB
+
== Changing memory reporting in 'top' ==
mkpart primary 1 100%
 
  
== Creating an ext4 file-system ==
+
To run top:
  
  # mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdf1
+
  $ top
  
== Listing disk drives ==
+
Press 'E' to switch between top memory units (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.)
  
# fdisk -l
+
Press 'e' to switch between bottom memory units (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.)
  
(That's an L for "list")
+
Press 'M' to sort by memory utilisation.
  
== Checking available disk space ==
+
Press 'm' to switch between various display modes.
  
$ df -h
+
== Showing full command-line in 'top' ==
  
== Getting disk information ==
+
To see the full command-line for processes run with -c:
  
  # lsblk
+
  $ top -c
  
And
+
== Listing all processes currently running which were started in your current shell session ==
  
  # cat /proc/partitions
+
  $ ps -fl
  
Or the Grand Daddy of them all:
+
== Killing specific processes ==
  
  # lshw -class disk
+
  # ps aux | grep -e "this\|that" | grep -v grep | tr -s " " | cut -d " " -f 2 | xargs kill -9
  
(Requires the lshw package.)
+
== Run a command for a specified time using timeout ==
  
== Getting partition UUID and file-system type ==
+
$ timeout 3 ping jj5.net
  
# blkid
+
= Disk management =
  
== Checking for SSD vs magnetic disk ==
+
== Reporting ext4 file-systems mounted without noatime ==
  
  # cat /sys/block/sda/queue/rotational
+
  $ cat /proc/mounts | grep ext | grep -v noatime | sort
  
Will be 0 for SSD and 1 for magnetic.
+
== Creating a partition table ==
  
== Monitoring a ZFS server ==
+
# parted /dev/xvdf
  
So some commands I run to keep an eye on my new ZFS servers:
+
mktable msdos
  
# top
+
== Creating a partition ==
# iotop
 
# nethogs
 
# watch free -h
 
# watch slabtop -o
 
# slabtop
 
# watch cat /proc/meminfo
 
# perf top
 
# watch "df -h | grep -v -e tmpfs -e udev -e by-uuid"
 
# watch zpool iostat -v
 
# zpool iostat -v 2
 
# watch 'zpool list; echo; zfs list'
 
# watch zfs get compressratio -o all
 
# watch cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
 
  
If you have a scrub or resilvering in progress you can report on progress with:
+
# parted /dev/xvdf
  
  # watch zpool status -v
+
  u MiB
 +
mkpart primary 1 100%
  
You can poke about in internals, e.g.:
+
== Creating an ext4 file-system ==
  
  # cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
+
  # mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdf1
  
root@orac:/sys/module/zfs/parameters# tail *
+
== Listing disk drives ==
  
You can report on property values with e.g.:
+
# fdisk -l
  
# zfs get all data
+
(That's an L for "list")
  
If you want to get funky:
+
== Checking available disk space ==
  
  # cd /tmp
+
  $ df -h
# perf record -ag #(Ctrl+C after ~15 seconds)
 
# perf report --stdio
 
  
You can search for ZFS files like e.g. this:
+
== Getting disk information ==
  
  root@orac:/# find / -name '*zfs*' -or -name '*zpool*'
+
  # lsblk
  
You can report history of a zpool:
+
And
  
  # zpool history $poolname
+
  # cat /proc/partitions
  
You can get a report on the dedup tables:
+
Or the Grand Daddy of them all:
  
  # zpool status -D $poolname
+
  # lshw -class disk
  
Or more detailed dedup table info:
+
(Requires the lshw package.)
  
# zdb -DDD $poolname
+
== Getting partition UUID and file-system type ==
  
Note in the output see [https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/405700 here] for details, basically:
+
# blkid
  
{|class="wikitable"
+
== Checking for SSD vs magnetic disk ==
! Abbr  !! Description
 
|-
 
| LSIZE  || logical size (in memory)
 
|-
 
| PSIZE  || physical size
 
|-
 
| DSIZE  || size on disk
 
|-
 
| refcnt || reference count
 
|}
 
  
== Measure data throughput ==
+
# cat /sys/block/sda/queue/rotational
  
Use the 'pv' command from the 'pv' package, e.g.:
+
Will be 0 for SSD and 1 for magnetic.
  
# cat /dev/sda | pv | cat > /dev/null
+
== Monitoring a ZFS server ==
  
Or for ZFS:
+
So some commands I run to keep an eye on my new ZFS servers:
  
  # zfs send data/example | pv | cat > /dev/null
+
  # top
 
+
# iotop
== Using Smartctl, Smartd and Hddtemp on Debian ==
+
# nethogs
 
+
# watch free -h
For notes on using smartctl see [https://www.lisenet.com/2014/using-smartctl-smartd-and-hddtemp-on-debian/ Using Smartctl, Smartd and Hddtemp on Debian].
+
# watch slabtop -o
 
+
# slabtop
== Report hard disk usage ==
+
# watch cat /proc/meminfo
 +
# perf top
 +
# watch "df -h | grep -v -e tmpfs -e udev -e by-uuid"
 +
# watch zpool iostat -v
 +
# zpool iostat -v 2
 +
# watch 'zpool list; echo; zfs list'
 +
# watch zfs get compressratio -o all
 +
# watch cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
  
So you might want to know how much data a process reads or writes to a hard disk. You can monitor process total disk utilisation with the 'iotop' command. Run 'iotop' and then press 'a' for --accumulated.
+
If you have a scrub or resilvering in progress you can report on progress with:
  
== Report hard disk temperatures ==
+
# watch zpool status -v
  
E.g.
+
You can poke about in internals, e.g.:
  
  # hddtemp /dev/sd[a-e]
+
  # cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
  
== Burning an ISO image to USB on Mac ==
+
root@orac:/sys/module/zfs/parameters# tail *
  
First insert your USB key and find the appropriate disk with:
+
You can report on property values with e.g.:
  
  # diskutil list
+
  # zfs get all data
  
Then unmount it with:
+
If you want to get funky:
  
  # diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk4
+
  # cd /tmp
 +
# perf record -ag #(Ctrl+C after ~15 seconds)
 +
# perf report --stdio
  
Then copy ISO image with 'dd':
+
You can search for ZFS files like e.g. this:
  
  # dd if=ubuntu-18.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso of=/dev/disk4
+
  root@orac:/# find / -name '*zfs*' -or -name '*zpool*'
  
You can get dd to report progress by sending it the SIGINFO signal:
+
You can report history of a zpool:
  
  # kill -s info 12345
+
  # zpool history $poolname
  
== Listing all ext4 file systems ==
+
You can get a report on the dedup tables:
  
To see a list only of the mounted ext4 file systems:
+
# zpool status -D $poolname
  
# df -t ext4
+
Or more detailed dedup table info:
  
= Monitoring disk I/O =
+
# zdb -DDD $poolname
  
There's an app for that! iotop.
+
Note in the output see [https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/405700 here] for details, basically:
  
== Using iotop, top for disks ==
+
{|class="wikitable"
 +
! Abbr  !! Description
 +
|-
 +
| LSIZE  || logical size (in memory)
 +
|-
 +
| PSIZE  || physical size
 +
|-
 +
| DSIZE  || size on disk
 +
|-
 +
| refcnt || reference count
 +
|}
  
# iotop -oPa
+
== How to tell if zfs scrub is running ==
  
== Monitor disk I/O for performance issues ==
+
You can get the status from the "scan:" line from:
  
  # watch iostat
+
  $ zpool status
  
Or e.g.
+
== Measure data throughput ==
  
# watch iostat -xd /dev/sd[abc]
+
Use the 'pv' command from the 'pv' package, e.g.:
  
Or use groupings like this command for 'tact':
+
# cat /dev/sda | pv | cat > /dev/null
  
$ iostat -g system nvme0n1 -g fast sda sdb -g data sdc sdd -d 2
+
Or for ZFS:
  
= Monitoring a system =
+
# zfs send data/example | pv | cat > /dev/null
  
== Simple ZFS monitoring ==
+
== Using Smartctl, Smartd and Hddtemp on Debian ==
  
# watch iostat
+
For notes on using smartctl see [https://www.lisenet.com/2014/using-smartctl-smartd-and-hddtemp-on-debian/ Using Smartctl, Smartd and Hddtemp on Debian].
# iotop
 
# zpool iostat -v 5
 
# watch 'hddtemp /dev/sd[a-e]; echo; zpool list; echo; zfs list'
 
# nethogs
 
# top
 
  
= Monitoring temperature =
+
== Report hard disk usage ==
  
See [https://askubuntu.com/a/854029 temperature without third-party apps] for:
+
So you might want to know how much data a process reads or writes to a hard disk. You can monitor process total disk utilisation with the 'iotop' command. Run 'iotop' and then press 'a' for --accumulated.
  
$ cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/temp
+
== Report hard disk temperatures ==
  
and:
+
E.g.
  
  $ paste <(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/type) <(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/temp) | column -s $'\t' -t | sed 's/\(.\)..$/.\1°C/'
+
  # hddtemp /dev/sd[a-e]
  
== Monitoring CPU temperature ==
+
== Burning an ISO image to USB on Mac ==
  
$ watch sensors
+
First insert your USB key and find the appropriate disk with:
  
== Monitoring HDD temperature ==
+
# diskutil list
  
For e.g. SATA drives sda to sdd:
+
Then unmount it with:
  
  # watch hddtemp /dev/sd[a-d]
+
  # diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk4
  
= ZFS =
+
Then copy ISO image with 'dd':
  
== How can I determine the current size of the ARC in ZFS, and how does the ARC relate to free or cache memory? ==
+
# dd if=ubuntu-18.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso of=/dev/disk4
  
See [https://superuser.com/q/1137416 How can I determine the current size of the ARC in ZFS, and how does the ARC relate to free or cache memory?]
+
You can get dd to report progress by sending it the SIGINFO signal:
  
  $ cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
+
  # kill -s info 12345
  
Then:
+
== Listing all ext4 file systems ==
  
c is the target size of the ARC in bytes
+
To see a list only of the mounted ext4 file systems:
c_max is the maximum size of the ARC in bytes
 
size is the current size of the ARC in bytes
 
  
= File management =
+
# df -t ext4
  
== Listing only directories ==
+
== Report hierarchical file system mount points and mount options ==
  
  $ ls -l | egrep '^d'
+
  $ findmnt
  
== Listing only files ==
+
== Report the mount point for the current working directory ==
  
  $ ls -l | egrep -v '^d'
+
  $ findmnt "$PWD"
  
== Listing hidden files ==
+
= Monitoring disk I/O =
  
$ ls -al .[!.]*
+
There's an app for that! iotop.
  
== Creating a symbolic link ==
+
== Using iotop, top for disks ==
  
  $ ln -s /path/to/target link-name
+
  # iotop -oPa
  
== Creating a hard-link ==
+
== Monitor disk I/O for performance issues ==
  
  $ ln /path/to/target file-name
+
  # watch iostat
  
== Changing the owner of a file ==
+
Or e.g.
  
  $ chown user:group <files>
+
  # watch iostat -xd /dev/sd[abc]
  
E.g.
+
Or use groupings like this command for 'tact':
  
  $ chown jj5:staff README
+
  $ iostat -g system nvme0n1 -g fast sda sdb -g data sdc sdd -d 2
$ chown root:root *
 
  
To apply recursively into sub-directories use -R,
+
= Monitoring a system =
  
$ chown -R root:root /etc/*
+
== Simple ZFS monitoring ==
  
== Changing file permissions ==
+
# watch iostat
 +
# iotop
 +
# zpool iostat -v 5
 +
# watch 'hddtemp /dev/sd[a-e]; echo; zpool list; echo; zfs list'
 +
# nethogs
 +
# top
  
{|class="wikitable"
+
= Monitoring temperature =
|+ Object codes
 
! User !! Group !! Other
 
|-
 
| u    || g    || o
 
|}
 
  
{|class="wikitable"
+
See [https://askubuntu.com/a/854029 temperature without third-party apps] for:
|+ Permission codes
+
 
! Read !! Write !! Exectue
+
$ cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/temp
|-
+
 
| r    || w    || x
+
and:
|-
+
 
| 4    || 2    || 1
+
$ paste <(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/type) <(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/temp) | column -s $'\t' -t | sed 's/\(.\)..$/.\1°C/'
|}
+
 
 +
== Monitoring CPU temperature ==
 +
 
 +
$ watch sensors
 +
 
 +
== Monitoring HDD temperature ==
  
{|class="wikitable"
+
For e.g. SATA drives sda to sdd:
|+ Numeric codes
 
! 0
 
| None
 
|-
 
! 1
 
| Execute
 
|-
 
! 2
 
| Write
 
|-
 
! 3
 
| Write, Execute
 
|-
 
! 4
 
| Read
 
|-
 
! 5
 
| Read, Execute
 
|-
 
! 6
 
| Read, Write
 
|-
 
! 7
 
| Read, Write, Execute
 
|}
 
  
See [http://catcode.com/teachmod/numeric2.html Numeric Mode in Action].
+
# watch hddtemp /dev/sd[a-d]
  
$ chmod <user numeric code><group numeric code><other numeric code> <files>
+
= ZFS =
$ chmod <object codes>+|-<permission codes> <files>
 
  
E.g.
+
== How can I determine the current size of the ARC in ZFS, and how does the ARC relate to free or cache memory? ==
  
$ chmod 600 my-private-file
+
See [https://superuser.com/q/1137416 How can I determine the current size of the ARC in ZFS, and how does the ARC relate to free or cache memory?]
$ chmod go-rwx my-private-file
 
$ chmod u+rw my-private-file
 
$ chmod +x my-script
 
  
== Updating config files ==
+
$ cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
  
If you get given a new config file called new.conf and you want to integrate it with your old config file old.conf then:
+
Then:
  
  $ cp old.conf updated.conf
+
  c is the target size of the ARC in bytes
  $ merge -A updated.conf new.conf old.conf
+
  c_max is the maximum size of the ARC in bytes
 +
size is the current size of the ARC in bytes
  
Then go through and edit updated.conf resolving all the merge errors, picking and choosing what to update and what to keep. When you're done copy updated.conf to old.conf so it becomes the new config file.
+
== Stopping a ZFS scrub in progress ==
  
The merge program is a part of the RCS package. If you don't have it:
+
# zpool scrub -s $pool
  
$ sudo apt-get install rcs
+
e.g. for the 'data' pool:
  
== Listing open files ==
+
# zpool scrub -s data
  
Use lsof to list open files. E.g.:
+
= File management =
  
# lsof
+
== Listing files by size ==
  
See man lsof for options.
+
Use capital S for Size:
  
== List permissions on a whole directory path ==
+
$ ls -S
  
E.g.:
+
== Listing only directories ==
  
  $ namei -om /home/jj5/workspace
+
  $ ls -l | egrep '^d'
  
Outputs:
+
== Listing only files ==
  
  f: /home/jj5/workspace/
+
  $ ls -l | egrep -v '^d'
  drwxr-xr-x root root /
 
  drwxr-xr-x root root home
 
  drwxr-xr-x jj5  jj5  jj5
 
  drwxr-xr-x jj5  jj5  workspace
 
  
== Counting non-blank lines in a file ==
+
== Listing hidden files ==
  
E.g.:
+
$ ls -al .[!.]*
  
$ cat foo.c | sed '/^\s*$/d' | wc -l
+
== Creating a symbolic link ==
  
== Cloning one directory to another with rsync ==
+
$ ln -s /path/to/target link-name
  
E.g.:
+
== Creating a hard-link ==
  
rsync --acls --xattrs --stats --human-readable --recursive --del --force --times --links --hard-links --executability --numeric-ids --owner --group --perms --sparse --compress-level=0 /data/source/ hostname:/data/target/
+
$ ln /path/to/target file-name
  
== Counting number of files in current directory and all subdirectories ==
+
== Changing the owner of a file ==
  
  $ ls -AlhR . | egrep '^-' | wc -l
+
  $ chown user:group <files>
  
== Counting number of directories in current directory and all subdirectories ==
+
E.g.
  
  $ ls -AlhR . | egrep '^d' | wc -l
+
  $ chown jj5:staff README
 +
$ chown root:root *
  
== Getting the status of a 'dd' process ==
+
To apply recursively into sub-directories use -R,
  
First figure out the 'dd' process number, with e.g. 'top' or 'ps aux | grep dd'
+
$ chown -R root:root /etc/*
  
Then send the dd process the SIGINFO signal, which for dd process 40947 would be:
+
== Changing file permissions ==
  
# kill -s info 40947
+
{|class="wikitable"
 +
|+ Object codes
 +
! User !! Group !! Other
 +
|-
 +
| u    || g    || o
 +
|}
  
The dd process will report its status in the terminal its running in.
+
{|class="wikitable"
 
+
|+ Permission codes
= Compression =
+
! Read !! Write !! Exectue
 +
|-
 +
| r    || w    || x
 +
|-
 +
| 4    || 2    || 1
 +
|}
  
== How to use pigz with tar ==
+
{|class="wikitable"
 +
|+ Numeric codes
 +
! 0
 +
| None
 +
|-
 +
! 1
 +
| Execute
 +
|-
 +
! 2
 +
| Write
 +
|-
 +
! 3
 +
| Write, Execute
 +
|-
 +
! 4
 +
| Read
 +
|-
 +
! 5
 +
| Read, Execute
 +
|-
 +
! 6
 +
| Read, Write
 +
|-
 +
! 7
 +
| Read, Write, Execute
 +
|}
  
See [https://stackoverflow.com/a/39904353 here]:
+
See [http://catcode.com/teachmod/numeric2.html Numeric Mode in Action].
 +
 
 +
$ chmod <user numeric code><group numeric code><other numeric code> <files>
 +
$ chmod <object codes>+|-<permission codes> <files>
 +
 
 +
E.g.
  
  $ tar cf - paths-to-archive | pigz --best -p 8 > archive.tgz
+
  $ chmod 600 my-private-file
 +
$ chmod go-rwx my-private-file
 +
$ chmod u+rw my-private-file
 +
$ chmod +x my-script
  
Note: don't use --best unless you're being stingy, running without it will be much faster.
+
== Updating config files ==
  
== Best parallel compression with pigz ==
+
If you get given a new config file called new.conf and you want to integrate it with your old config file old.conf then:
  
  $ pigz --best
+
  $ cp old.conf updated.conf
 +
$ merge -A updated.conf new.conf old.conf
  
== Best parallel compression with xz ==
+
Then go through and edit updated.conf resolving all the merge errors, picking and choosing what to update and what to keep. When you're done copy updated.conf to old.conf so it becomes the new config file.
  
$ xz -9e -T 0
+
The merge program is a part of the RCS package. If you don't have it:
  
== Reporting compression ratios with xz ==
+
$ sudo apt-get install rcs
  
e.g.
+
== Listing open files ==
  
root@love:/data/image/archive# xz -l *
+
Use lsof to list open files. E.g.:
Strms  Blocks  Compressed Uncompressed  Ratio  Check  Filename
 
    1      3    372.2 MiB    442.3 MiB  0.841  CRC64  1999.txz
 
    1      29  5,281.3 MiB  5,542.5 MiB  0.953  CRC64  2001.txz
 
    1      11  1,364.3 MiB  2,084.3 MiB  0.655  CRC64  2002.txz
 
    1      9    568.5 MiB  1,660.2 MiB  0.342  CRC64  2003.txz
 
    1    639    66.8 GiB    119.6 GiB  0.558  CRC64  2004.txz
 
    1    313    12.7 GiB    58.6 GiB  0.217  CRC64  2005.txz
 
    1    414    35.0 GiB    77.4 GiB  0.452  CRC64  2006.txz
 
    1    485    44.5 GiB    90.9 GiB  0.490  CRC64  2007.txz
 
    1  1,690    150.0 GiB    316.8 GiB  0.473  CRC64  2008.txz
 
    1      3    457.9 MiB    526.0 MiB  0.871  CRC64  2009.txz
 
    1    168    27.3 GiB    31.4 GiB  0.868  CRC64  2010.txz
 
    1      4    477.1 MiB    702.8 MiB  0.679  CRC64  2011.txz
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
    12  3,768    344.6 GiB    705.5 GiB  0.488  CRC64  12 files
 
  
= Symbolic-link management =
+
# lsof
  
== Data used by sym-linked files:
+
See man lsof for options.
  
This will de-reference the sym-links in the current directory and tell you how much data the files pointed to by the sym-links are using:
+
== List permissions on a whole directory path ==
  
jj5@tact:/data/backup/unity/latest$ du -hD * | sort -h
+
E.g.:
  
= File searching =
+
$ namei -om /home/jj5/workspace
  
== Finding a file with a particular name ==
+
Outputs:
  
  $ find -iname "*some-part-of-the-file-name*"
+
  f: /home/jj5/workspace/
 +
  drwxr-xr-x root root /
 +
  drwxr-xr-x root root home
 +
  drwxr-xr-x jj5  jj5  jj5
 +
  drwxr-xr-x jj5  jj5  workspace
  
Will start searching from the current directory, so maybe
+
== Counting non-blank lines in a file ==
  
$ cd /
+
E.g.:
  
first. For a case-sensitive search:
+
$ cat foo.c | sed '/^\s*$/d' | wc -l
  
$ find -name "*eXaCT CaSE*"
+
== Cloning one directory to another with rsync ==
  
== Finding a file with particular content ==
+
E.g.:
  
To search in /etc/ for a file with particular content:
+
rsync --acls --xattrs --stats --human-readable --recursive --del --force --times --links --hard-links --executability --numeric-ids --owner --group --perms --sparse --compress-level=0 /data/source/ hostname:/data/target/
  
$ grep -R "search-string" /etc/*
+
== Counting number of files in current directory and all subdirectories ==
  
To search the current directory for *.cs files containing the word "Up":
+
$ ls -AlhR . | egrep '^-' | wc -l
  
$ find . -name '*.cs' -exec grep --color=auto -H Up {} \;
+
== Counting number of directories in current directory and all subdirectories ==
  
== Finding a list of files with particular content ==
+
$ ls -AlhR . | egrep '^d' | wc -l
  
E.g. to find all the files with the word 'creativity':
+
== Getting the status of a 'dd' process ==
  
$ grep -R creativity . | sed 's/:/ /' | awk '{ print $1 }' | sort | uniq
+
First figure out the 'dd' process number, with e.g. 'top' or 'ps aux | grep dd'
  
== Using the locate command to find files ==
+
Then send the dd process the SIGINFO signal, which for dd process 40947 would be:
  
  $ locate part-of-filename
+
  # kill -s info 40947
  
E.g.
+
The dd process will report its status in the terminal its running in.
  
$ locate texvc
+
== Transferring a large file via FAT32 file system ==
  
== Updating locate command's database ==
+
So the maximum file size supported by a FAT32 file system (commonly used on USB keys) is 4 GB per file. If you have a file larger than 4 GB you can split it into parts and then reassemble the parts once transferred:
  
  # updatedb
+
  $ split -b 4000m input.tgz input.tgz-parts-
  
== Select a random line from a text file ==
+
Then copy the small files and reassemble:
  
  $ shuf -n 1 input.txt
+
  $ cat input.tgz-parts-* > output.tgz
  
== Extra context for grep ==
+
== Find the difference between two directories ==
  
If you need to show extra lines before or after your grep results use -B NUM to set how many lines before the match and -A NUM for the number of lines after the match:
+
$ diif -qr $DIR_A $DIR_B
  
$ grep -B 3 -A 1 ...
+
= NFS =
  
= Job control =
+
== List NFS shares ==
  
== Stopping a running process ==
+
To e.g. show NFS shares on 'love':
  
Press Ctrl+Z to stop a running process.
+
$ showmount -e love
  
== Listing current jobs and their status ==
+
= Compression =
  
$ jobs
+
== How to use pigz with tar ==
  
== Resuming a stopped job in the backgroud ==
+
See [https://stackoverflow.com/a/39904353 here]:
  
To resume a stopped process in the background
+
$ tar cf - paths-to-archive | pigz --best -p 8 > archive.tgz
  
$ bg %1
+
Note: don't use --best unless you're being stingy, running without it will be much faster.
  
where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').
+
Also from [https://stackoverflow.com/a/50586833 here]:
  
== Resuming a stopped job in the foreground ==
+
Fast pack:
  
To resume a stopped process in the foreground
+
tar -I 'pigz --fast' -cf my.tar.gz whatver
  
$ fg %1
+
Best pack:
  
where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').
+
tar -I 'pigz --best' -cf my.tar.gz whatver
  
== Killing a stopped job ==
+
Fast unpack:
  
To kill a job
+
tar -I pigz -xf my.tar.gz
  
$ kill %1
+
== Best compression with tar ==
  
where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').
+
From [https://superuser.com/questions/514260/how-to-obtain-maximum-compression-with-tar-gz#544643 here]:
  
== Periodically run a program and watch its output ==
+
export GZIP=-9
 +
tar cvzf file.tar.gz /path/to/directory
  
$ watch /your/command
+
or
  
= Debian/Ubuntu package management =
+
env GZIP=-9 tar cvzf file.tar.gz /path/to/directory
  
Also see [https://wiki.debian.org/WhereIsIt Where "is" it?] on the Debian Wiki.
+
== Best parallel compression with pigz ==
  
== configuring debconf ==
+
$ pigz --best
  
# dpkg-reconfigure debconf
+
== Best parallel compression with xz ==
  
Set priority to low to get asked detailed questions.
+
$ xz -9e -T 0
  
== Showing list of installed packages ==
+
== Reporting compression ratios with xz ==
  
# dpkg --get-selections
+
e.g.
  
== Searching for installed package ==
+
root@love:/data/image/archive# xz -l *
 +
Strms  Blocks  Compressed Uncompressed  Ratio  Check  Filename
 +
    1      3    372.2 MiB    442.3 MiB  0.841  CRC64  1999.txz
 +
    1      29  5,281.3 MiB  5,542.5 MiB  0.953  CRC64  2001.txz
 +
    1      11  1,364.3 MiB  2,084.3 MiB  0.655  CRC64  2002.txz
 +
    1      9    568.5 MiB  1,660.2 MiB  0.342  CRC64  2003.txz
 +
    1    639    66.8 GiB    119.6 GiB  0.558  CRC64  2004.txz
 +
    1    313    12.7 GiB    58.6 GiB  0.217  CRC64  2005.txz
 +
    1    414    35.0 GiB    77.4 GiB  0.452  CRC64  2006.txz
 +
    1    485    44.5 GiB    90.9 GiB  0.490  CRC64  2007.txz
 +
    1  1,690    150.0 GiB    316.8 GiB  0.473  CRC64  2008.txz
 +
    1      3    457.9 MiB    526.0 MiB  0.871  CRC64  2009.txz
 +
    1    168    27.3 GiB    31.4 GiB  0.868  CRC64  2010.txz
 +
    1      4    477.1 MiB    702.8 MiB  0.679  CRC64  2011.txz
 +
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
    12  3,768    344.6 GiB    705.5 GiB  0.488  CRC64  12 files
  
# dpkg --get-selections | grep package-name
+
= Symbolic-link management =
  
or
+
== Data used by sym-linked files:
  
# aptitude search package-name
+
This will de-reference the sym-links in the current directory and tell you how much data the files pointed to by the sym-links are using:
  
== Showing which files are installed as part of a package ==
+
jj5@tact:/data/backup/unity/latest$ du -hD * | sort -h
  
# dpkg -L package-name
+
= File searching =
  
== Installing a package ==
+
== Finding a file with a particular name ==
  
  # apt-get install package-name
+
  $ find -iname "*some-part-of-the-file-name*"
  
== Uninstalling a package ==
+
Will start searching from the current directory, so maybe
  
  # apt-get remove package-name
+
  $ cd /
  
== Showing system architecture ==
+
first. For a case-sensitive search:
  
  $ dpkg --print-architecture
+
  $ find -name "*eXaCT CaSE*"
  
== Showing which package a file belongs to ==
+
== Finding a file with particular content ==
  
$ which echo
+
To search in /etc/ for a file with particular content:
/bin/echo
 
$ dpkg -S /bin/echo
 
coreutils: /bin/echo
 
$ dpkg -l | grep coreutils
 
ii  coreutils                        6.10-6                  The GNU core utilities
 
  
== Showing package information ==
+
$ grep -R "search-string" /etc/*
  
$ apt-cache showpkg coreutils
+
To search the current directory for *.cs files containing the word "Up":
  
Or for even more information:
+
$ find . -name '*.cs' -exec grep --color=auto -H Up {} \;
  
$ apt-cache show coreutils
+
== Finding a list of files with particular content ==
  
== List all installed packages with package version info ==
+
E.g. to find all the files with the word 'creativity':
  
  dpkg-query -l
+
  $ grep -R creativity . | sed 's/:/ /' | awk '{ print $1 }' | sort | uniq
  
== Reporting which version of a package is installed ==
+
== Using the locate command to find files ==
  
  $ dpkg -l | grep package-name
+
  $ locate part-of-filename
  
E.g.:
+
E.g.
  
  root@hope:~/letsencrypt# dpkg -l | grep augeas
+
  $ locate texvc
ii  augeas-lenses                  0.7.0-1ubuntu1                Set of lenses needed by libaugeas0 to parse
 
ii  libaugeas0                      0.7.0-1ubuntu1                The augeas configuration editing library and
 
  
== Comprehensive upgrade ==
+
== Updating locate command's database ==
  
Try the following:
+
# updatedb
  
# apt-get update
+
== Select a random line from a text file ==
# apt-get dist-upgrade
 
# apt-get autoremove
 
# apt-get remove $(deborphan)
 
# update-flashplugin-nonfree --install
 
  
== Searching all available packages ==
+
$ shuf -n 1 input.txt
  
$ apt-cache search . | sort -d | less
+
== Extra context for grep ==
  
= Networking =
+
If you need to show extra lines before or after your grep results use -B NUM to set how many lines before the match and -A NUM for the number of lines after the match:
  
== net-tools vs iproute2 ==
+
$ grep -B 3 -A 1 ...
  
The older 'net-tools' package has been replaced with 'iproute2' e.g. in [https://www.debian.org/releases/stretch/amd64/release-notes/ch-information.en.html#iproute2 stretch].
+
= Job control =
  
{|class="wikitable"
+
== Stopping a running process ==
! legacy net-tools commands
 
! iproute2 replacement commands
 
|-
 
| arp      || ip n (ip neighbor)
 
|-
 
| ifconfig || ip a (ip addr), ip link, ip -s (ip -stats)
 
|-
 
| iptunnel || ip tunnel
 
|-
 
| iwconfig || iw
 
|-
 
| nameif  || ip link, ifrename
 
|-
 
| netstat  || ss, ip route (for netstat-r), ip -s link (for netstat -i), ip maddr (for netstat-g)
 
|-
 
| route    || ip r (ip route)
 
|}
 
  
== Restart networking ==
+
Press Ctrl+Z to stop a running process.
  
For servers:
+
== Listing current jobs and their status ==
  
  # service networking restart
+
  $ jobs
  
For desktops:
+
== Resuming a stopped job in the backgroud ==
  
# service network-manager restart
+
To resume a stopped process in the background
  
== Pinging with particular packet size ==
+
$ bg %1
  
$ ping -M do -s <packet size in bytes> <host>
+
where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').
  
E.g.
+
== Resuming a stopped job in the foreground ==
  
$ ping -M do -s 1400 charity.progclub.org
+
To resume a stopped process in the foreground
  
== Setting [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximum_segment_size MSS] for a particular IP address on a particular interface ==
+
$ fg %1
  
# ip route add <host> dev <interface> advmss <packet size>
+
where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').
  
E.g.
+
== Killing a stopped job ==
  
# ip route add 10.0.0.1 dev eth0 advmss 1400
+
To kill a job
  
== Dropping configured MMS for a particular IP address ==
+
$ kill %1
  
# ip route flush <host>
+
where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').
  
E.g.
+
== Periodically run a program and watch its output ==
  
  # ip route flush 10.0.0.1
+
  $ watch /your/command
  
== Listing open ports and socket information ==
+
= Debian/Ubuntu package management =
  
Including which process is listening on which port.
+
Also see [https://wiki.debian.org/WhereIsIt Where "is" it?] on the Debian Wiki.
  
# netstat -tulpn
+
== configuring debconf ==
  
Or use the 'ss' command:
+
# dpkg-reconfigure debconf
  
# ss -s
+
Set priority to low to get asked detailed questions.
# ss -l
 
# ss -pl
 
# ss -o state established '( dport = :smtp or sport = :smtp )'
 
  
== Listing open IPv4 connections ==
+
== Showing list of installed packages ==
  
  # lsof -Pnl +M -i4
+
  # dpkg --get-selections
  
You might need to install the lsof package:
+
== Searching for installed package ==
  
  # apt-get install lsof
+
  # dpkg --get-selections | grep package-name
  
== Query for DNS MX record ==
+
or
  
  $ nslookup
+
  # aptitude search package-name
> server 127.0.0.1
 
> set q=mx
 
> mail.blackbrick.com
 
  
== Query for DNS SOA record ==
+
== Showing which files are installed as part of a package ==
  
  $ dig @ns2.staticmagic.net -t SOA staticmagic.net
+
  # dpkg -L package-name
  
== Using nmap to list open ports on remote host ==
+
== Installing a package ==
  
To check the 1,000 most common ports:
+
# apt-get install package-name
  
# nmap server.example.com
+
== Uninstalling a package ==
  
Or for a specific port range (e.g. 101 to 102):
+
# apt-get remove package-name
  
# nmap -p 101-102 server.example.com
+
== Showing system architecture ==
  
Or for all ports (1 to 65,535):
+
$ dpkg --print-architecture
  
# nmap -p- server.example.com
+
== Showing which package a file belongs to ==
  
== Network monitoring ==
+
$ which echo
 +
/bin/echo
 +
$ dpkg -S /bin/echo
 +
coreutils: /bin/echo
 +
$ dpkg -l | grep coreutils
 +
ii  coreutils                        6.10-6                  The GNU core utilities
  
See [http://www.binarytides.com/linux-commands-monitor-network/ here] for details. Basically:
+
== Showing package information ==
  
# Overall bandwidth: nload, bmon, slurm, bwm-ng, cbm, speedometer, netload
+
$ apt-cache showpkg coreutils
# Overall bandwidth (batch style output): vnstat, ifstat, dstat, collectl
 
# Bandwidth per socket connection: iftop, iptraf, tcptrack, pktstat, netwatch, trafshow
 
# Bandwidth per process: nethogs
 
  
== nload ==
+
Or for even more information:
  
You can watch network traffic in real-time with nload:
+
$ apt-cache show coreutils
  
# nload -u M
+
== List all installed packages with package version info ==
  
== Reporting network (NIC) speed ==
+
dpkg-query -l
  
From [https://askubuntu.com/questions/431911/how-can-i-verify-the-speed-of-my-nic-in-ubuntu#431912 here]:
+
== Reporting which version of a package is installed ==
  
  # dmesg | grep eth0
+
  $ dpkg -l | grep package-name
# mii-tool -v eth0
 
# ethtool eth0
 
  
Note: use ifconfig to get device name.
+
E.g.:
  
== Path MTU discovery ==
+
root@hope:~/letsencrypt# dpkg -l | grep augeas
 +
ii  augeas-lenses                  0.7.0-1ubuntu1                Set of lenses needed by libaugeas0 to parse
 +
ii  libaugeas0                      0.7.0-1ubuntu1                The augeas configuration editing library and
  
To do a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Path_MTU_Discovery Path MTU Discovery], from the iputils-tracepath package:
+
== Comprehensive upgrade ==
  
# tracepath host.example.com
+
Try the following:
  
== Listing available Ethernet devices ==
+
# apt-get update
 +
# apt-get dist-upgrade
 +
# apt-get autoremove
 +
# apt-get remove $(deborphan)
 +
# update-flashplugin-nonfree --install
  
To see a list of NICs available on the host:
+
== Searching all available packages ==
  
  $ cat /proc/net/dev
+
  $ apt-cache search . | sort -d | less
  
Also
+
== Reporting unattended upgrades status ==
  
$ ip link
+
See [https://askubuntu.com/questions/934807/unattended-upgrades-status#934863 here] for more info.
  
== 59 Linux Networking commands and scripts ==
+
# tail -f /var/log/unattended-upgrades/unattended-upgrades.log
  
See [https://haydenjames.io/linux-networking-commands-scripts/ 59 Linux Networking commands and scripts].
+
== Searching for Debian packages and versions ==
  
== Links ==
+
* [https://packages.debian.org/search?keywords=dnscrypt-proxy Debian package search]
  
* [http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/linux-unix-open-ports/ HowTo: UNIX / Linux Open TCP / UDP Ports]
+
= Networking =
  
= IPTables =
+
== Determining throughput between two hosts ==
  
== Applying firewall rules ==
+
# apt install iperf3
  
For configuration info see [http://articles.slicehost.com/2008/4/25/ubuntu-hardy-setup-page-1 this article].
+
On the server:
  
  $ sudo vim /etc/iptables.test.rules
+
  # iperf3 -s
$ sudo /sbin/iptables -F
 
$ sudo /sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.test.rules
 
$ sudo iptables -L
 
$ sudo -s
 
# iptables-save > /etc/iptables.up.rules
 
# exit
 
  
= ufw =
+
On the client:
  
== Denying hosts with ufw ==
+
# iperf3 -c $SERVER_IP
  
See [[Admin_reference#Denying_hosts_with_UFW|denying hosts with ufw]].
+
For more info see: [https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/how-to-test-the-network-speedthroughput-between-two-linux-servers/ How to test the network speed/throughput between two Linux servers].
  
= Bind9 =
+
== net-tools vs iproute2 ==
  
== Viewing Bind9 querylog ==
+
The older 'net-tools' package has been replaced with 'iproute2' e.g. in [https://www.debian.org/releases/stretch/amd64/release-notes/ch-information.en.html#iproute2 stretch].
  
$ sudo rndc querylog
+
{|class="wikitable"
$ tail -f /var/log/syslog
+
! legacy net-tools commands
 
+
! iproute2 replacement commands
= IPSec =
+
|-
 
+
| arp      || ip n (ip neighbor)
== Disabling IPSec ==
+
|-
 
+
| ifconfig || ip a (ip addr), ip link, ip -s (ip -stats)
  # setkey -FP
+
|-
 +
| iptunnel || ip tunnel
 +
|-
 +
| iwconfig || iw
 +
|-
 +
| nameif  || ip link, ifrename
 +
|-
 +
| netstat || ss, ip route (for netstat-r), ip -s link (for netstat -i), ip maddr (for netstat-g)
 +
|-
 +
| route    || ip r (ip route)
 +
|}
  
= OpenSSL =
+
== Restart networking ==
  
== Debugging IMAPS with OpenSSL ==
+
For servers:
  
  # openssl s_client -connect localhost:993
+
  # service networking restart
> a1 LOGIN username@host password
 
> a2 LOGOUT
 
  
== Debugging HTTPS with OpenSSL ==
+
For desktops:
  
  $ openssl s_client -connect www.example.com:443
+
  # service network-manager restart
GET /example.html HTTP/1.1
 
host: www.example.com
 
  
== Links ==
+
== Pinging with particular packet size ==
  
* [http://www.madboa.com/geek/openssl/ OpenSSL Command-Line HOWTO]
+
$ ping -M do -s <packet size in bytes> <host>
  
= Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) =
+
E.g.
  
== Links ==
+
$ ping -M do -s 1400 charity.progclub.org
  
* [http://www.centos.org/docs/5/html/Deployment_Guide-en-US/ch-pam.html 42.4. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)]
+
== Setting [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximum_segment_size MSS] for a particular IP address on a particular interface ==
  
= SSH =
+
# ip route add <host> dev <interface> advmss <packet size>
  
== Configuring SSH key login ==
+
E.g.
  
On the client machine generate a key-pair (if necessary, check for existing ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub):
+
# ip route add 10.0.0.1 dev eth0 advmss 1400
  
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
+
== Dropping configured MMS for a particular IP address ==
  
Copy the public key from the client to the server:
+
# ip route flush <host>
  
$ scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub user@example.org:
+
E.g.
  
Configure the authorized keys on the server:
+
# ip route flush 10.0.0.1
  
$ ssh user@example.org
+
== Listing open ports and socket information ==
$ mkdir ~/.ssh
 
$ chmod go-w .ssh
 
$ cat ~/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
 
$ chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
 
$ rm ~/id_rsa.pub
 
  
== Tunneling over SSH ==
+
Including which process is listening on which port.
  
For example, connecting a remote MySQL server to the localhost:
+
# netstat -tulpn
  
$ ssh -L 3306:localhost:3306 jselliot@ssh.progsoc.org
+
Or use the 'ss' command:
  
If the machine you want to connect to is not the localhost of the machine you're ssh'ing to,
+
# ss -s
 
+
# ss -l
  $ ssh -L 3306:muspell.progsoc.uts.edu.au:3306 ssh.progsoc.uts.edu.au
+
# ss -pl
 +
# ss -o state established '( dport = :smtp or sport = :smtp )'
  
The -L stanza is localport:remotehost:remoteport where localport is a
+
== Listing open IPv4 connections ==
port on your machine, forwarded to remoteport on remotehost.
 
  
== Tunneling over SSH with PuTTY ==
+
# lsof -Pnl +M -i4
  
See [http://www.anchor.com.au/hosting/support/MySQL/Connecting_to_mysql_remotely Connecting to the MySQL database remotely (via an SSH Tunnel)]
+
You might need to install the lsof package:
  
* run putty.exe
+
# apt-get install lsof
* Connection -> SSH -> Tunnels
 
** Port forwarding: source port to 3306
 
** destination: 127.0.0.1:3306
 
** check Local
 
** click Add
 
  
== Enabling verbose SSH logging ==
+
== Query for DNS MX record ==
  
To see what's going on with your ssh connections,
+
$ nslookup
 +
> server 127.0.0.1
 +
> set q=mx
 +
> mail.blackbrick.com
  
$ ssh -v user@host
+
== Query for DNS SOA record ==
  
Or
+
$ dig @ns2.staticmagic.net -t SOA staticmagic.net
  
$ ssh -vv user@host
+
== Using nmap to list open ports on remote host ==
  
== Unlocking SSH key for session ==
+
To check the 1,000 most common ports:
  
  jj5@orac:~/.config/autostart$ cat ssh-add.desktop
+
  # nmap server.example.com
[Desktop Entry]
 
Type=Application
 
Name=ssh-add
 
Comment=Adds my private key to my session.
 
Exec=/usr/bin/konsole -e 'ssh-add /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa'
 
  
== Links ==
+
Or for a specific port range (e.g. 101 to 102):
  
* [http://blogs.perl.org/users/smylers/2011/08/ssh-productivity-tips.html SSH Can Do That? Productivity Tips for Working with Remote Servers]
+
# nmap -p 101-102 server.example.com
* [http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html PuTTY Download Page]
 
  
= Standard IO =
+
Or for all ports (1 to 65,535):
  
== cat EOF ==
+
# nmap -p- server.example.com
  
$ cat > output <<EOF
+
== Network monitoring ==
> text
 
> EOF
 
  
$ cat output
+
See [http://www.binarytides.com/linux-commands-monitor-network/ here] for details. Basically:
text
 
  
= Script =
+
# Overall bandwidth: nload, bmon, slurm, bwm-ng, cbm, speedometer, netload
 +
# Overall bandwidth (batch style output): vnstat, ifstat, dstat, collectl
 +
# Bandwidth per socket connection: iftop, iptraf, tcptrack, pktstat, netwatch, trafshow
 +
# Bandwidth per process: nethogs
  
== Creating a session log with script ==
+
== nload ==
  
$ script -t 2> timing
+
You can watch network traffic in real-time with nload:
  
The session log is in the file 'typescript' and the timing data is in 'timing'.
+
# nload -u M
  
== Replaying a scripted session ==
+
== Reporting network (NIC) speed ==
  
$ scriptreplay timing
+
From [https://askubuntu.com/questions/431911/how-can-i-verify-the-speed-of-my-nic-in-ubuntu#431912 here]:
  
Uses the default file 'typescript' and the 'timing' file as specified.
+
# dmesg | grep eth0
 +
# mii-tool -v eth0
 +
# ethtool eth0
  
= Screen =
+
Note: use ifconfig to get device name.
  
== Creating a new screen or reconnecting to a detached screen ==
+
== Path MTU discovery ==
  
$ screen -R
+
To do a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Path_MTU_Discovery Path MTU Discovery], from the iputils-tracepath package:
  
== Detaching a screen ==
+
# tracepath host.example.com
  
$ screen -D
+
== Listing available Ethernet devices ==
  
== Reconnecting to screen ==
+
To see a list of NICs available on the host:
  
  $ screen -D
+
  $ cat /proc/net/dev
$ screen -R
 
  
I have a script in ~/bin/reconnect like so,
+
Also
  
  #!/bin/bash
+
  $ ip link
screen -D
 
screen -R
 
  
This will detach your last screen, and reconnect it on the current terminal.
+
== 59 Linux Networking commands and scripts ==
  
== Scrolling in screen ==
+
See [https://haydenjames.io/linux-networking-commands-scripts/ 59 Linux Networking commands and scripts].
  
See [https://www.saltycrane.com/blog/2008/01/how-to-scroll-in-gnu-screen/ How to scroll in GNU Screen]. Basically press Ctrl+A ESC then use Page Up and Page Down. Press ESC again to exit copy mode. As usual you can use Ctrl+[ in place of ESC.
+
== Links ==
  
= Vim =
+
* [http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/linux-unix-open-ports/ HowTo: UNIX / Linux Open TCP / UDP Ports]
  
== First, why Vim? ==
+
= IPTables =
  
Read [http://www.viemu.com/a-why-vi-vim.html Why, oh WHY, do those #?@! nutheads use vi?]
+
== Applying firewall rules ==
  
== Visual modes ==
+
For configuration info see [http://articles.slicehost.com/2008/4/25/ubuntu-hardy-setup-page-1 this article].
  
Use 'v' for visual mode, 'V' for visual line mode and Ctrl+V for visual block mode.
+
$ sudo vim /etc/iptables.test.rules
 +
$ sudo /sbin/iptables -F
 +
$ sudo /sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.test.rules
 +
$ sudo iptables -L
 +
$ sudo -s
 +
# iptables-save > /etc/iptables.up.rules
 +
# exit
  
== Configuring spaces instead of tabs ==
+
== Blocking an IP address with iptables ==
  
I use two spaces instead of tabs. To configure, edit your .vimrc file:
+
To drop IP address 1.2.3.4:
  
  $ vim ~/.vimrc
+
  # iptables -A INPUT -s 1.2.3.4 -j DROP
  
and include the following lines:
+
= ufw =
  
set tabstop=2
+
== Denying hosts with ufw ==
set shiftwidth=2
 
set expandtab
 
  
== Configuring syntax highlighting ==
+
See [[Admin_reference#Denying_hosts_with_UFW|denying hosts with ufw]].
  
See [http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/turn-on-or-off-color-syntax-highlighting-in-vi-or-vim/ here].
+
= Bind9 =
  
Use:
+
== Viewing Bind9 querylog ==
  
  :syntax on
+
  $ sudo rndc querylog
 +
$ tail -f /var/log/syslog
  
to turn on syntax highlighting.
+
= IPSec =
  
Use:
+
== Disabling IPSec ==
  
  :syntax off
+
  # setkey -FP
  
to turn off syntax highlighting.
+
= OpenSSL =
  
To always use syntax highlighting:
+
== Debugging IMAPS with OpenSSL ==
  
  $ vim ~/.vimrc
+
  # openssl s_client -connect localhost:993
 +
> a1 LOGIN username@host password
 +
> a2 LOGOUT
  
and add:
+
== Debugging HTTPS with OpenSSL ==
  
  syntax on
+
  $ openssl s_client -connect www.example.com:443
 +
GET /example.html HTTP/1.1
 +
host: www.example.com
  
To get a list of supported colour schemes open vim and type:
+
== Links ==
  
:colorscheme[space][Ctrl+D]
+
* [http://www.madboa.com/geek/openssl/ OpenSSL Command-Line HOWTO]
  
To always use a particular colorscheme edit ~/.vimrc and add (for example):
+
= Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) =
  
colorscheme desert
+
== Links ==
  
== Inserting a TAB character when expandtab is on ==
+
* [http://www.centos.org/docs/5/html/Deployment_Guide-en-US/ch-pam.html 42.4. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)]
  
The problem here is that you have configured vim to insert spaces, but for a particular file (e.g. a Makefile) you need to insert a character.
+
= SSH =
  
Press Ctrl+V TAB to insert a literal tab character.
+
== Configuring SSH key login ==
  
Or you can disable tab expansion altogether with:
+
On the client machine generate a key-pair (if necessary, check for existing ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub):
  
  :set expandtab!
+
  $ ssh-keygen -t rsa
  
== Changing 2 space indent to 4 space indent (e.g. for python files) ==
+
Copy the public key from the client to the server:
  
  :%s/^\s*/&&/g
+
  $ scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub user@example.org:
  
For more information [https://www.progclub.org/blog/2013/08/10/vim-reformat-a-python-file-to-have-4-space-indentations/ see here].
+
Configure the authorized keys on the server:
  
== Recording and replaying a macro ==
+
$ ssh user@example.org
 +
$ mkdir ~/.ssh
 +
$ chmod go-w .ssh
 +
$ cat ~/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
 +
$ chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
 +
$ rm ~/id_rsa.pub
  
To record a macro press 'q' and then a number between 1 and 9. E.g. press "q1". The macro is now recording. When you've finished issuing your commands press 'q' again to finish recording. To replay a macro press '@' followed by the number of the macro. That is, if you pressed "q1" to record the macro, press "@1" to replay the macro. To replay the last macro again press "@@".
+
== Tunneling over SSH ==
  
== Deleting to end of line ==
+
For example, connecting a remote MySQL server to the localhost:
  
  d$
+
  $ ssh -L 3306:localhost:3306 jselliot@ssh.progsoc.org
  
== Deleting to beginning of line ==
+
If the machine you want to connect to is not the localhost of the machine you're ssh'ing to,
  
d^
+
  $ ssh -L 3306:muspell.progsoc.uts.edu.au:3306 ssh.progsoc.uts.edu.au
  
== Finding text ==
+
The -L stanza is localport:remotehost:remoteport where localport is a
 +
port on your machine, forwarded to remoteport on remotehost.
  
To search forward for "text":
+
== Tunneling over SSH with PuTTY ==
  
/text
+
See [http://www.anchor.com.au/hosting/support/MySQL/Connecting_to_mysql_remotely Connecting to the MySQL database remotely (via an SSH Tunnel)]
  
To search backward for "text":
+
* run putty.exe
 +
* Connection -> SSH -> Tunnels
 +
** Port forwarding: source port to 3306
 +
** destination: 127.0.0.1:3306
 +
** check Local
 +
** click Add
  
?text
+
== Enabling verbose SSH logging ==
  
To repeat the last search in a forward direction press 'n', or to search again backwards press 'N'.
+
To see what's going on with your ssh connections,
  
== Finding and replacing text ==
+
$ ssh -v user@host
  
To replace the first instance of "search" on the current line with "destroy":
+
Or
  
  :s/search/destroy/
+
  $ ssh -vv user@host
  
To replace all instances of "search" on the current line with "destroy":
+
== Unlocking SSH key for session ==
  
  :s/search/destroy/g
+
  jj5@orac:~/.config/autostart$ cat ssh-add.desktop
 +
[Desktop Entry]
 +
Type=Application
 +
Name=ssh-add
 +
Comment=Adds my private key to my session.
 +
Exec=/usr/bin/konsole -e 'ssh-add /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa'
  
To replace all instances of "search" on lines 13 to 37 with "destroy":
+
== Links ==
  
:13,37 s/search/destroy/g
+
* [http://blogs.perl.org/users/smylers/2011/08/ssh-productivity-tips.html SSH Can Do That? Productivity Tips for Working with Remote Servers]
 +
* [http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html PuTTY Download Page]
  
To replace all instances of "search" in the entire file with "destroy":
+
= Standard IO =
  
:%s/search/destroy/g
+
== cat EOF ==
  
== Changing DOS/Windows line-endings (CRLF) to Unix line-endings ==
+
$ cat > output <<EOF
 +
> text
 +
> EOF
  
To set the line-ending to Unix line endings run the command:
+
$ cat output
 +
text
  
:setlocal ff=unix
+
= Script =
  
More information on managing file formats [http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/File_format available here].
+
== Creating a session log with script ==
  
== Disabling auto-indent etc. to paste from clipboard ==
+
$ script -t 2> timing
  
To disable smart indenting when you're going to paste in text:
+
The session log is in the file 'typescript' and the timing data is in 'timing'.
  
:set paste
+
== Replaying a scripted session ==
  
To turn it off again:
+
$ scriptreplay timing
  
:set nopaste
+
Uses the default file 'typescript' and the 'timing' file as specified.
  
There's more info in this article: [http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/Toggle_auto-indenting_for_code_paste Toggle auto-indenting for code paste]
+
= Screen =
  
== Positioning windows ==
+
== Creating a new screen or reconnecting to a detached screen ==
  
Use -o for horizontal split, e.g.:
+
$ screen -R
  
vim -o a.txt b.txt
+
== Detaching a screen ==
  
Use -O for vertical split, e.g.:
+
$ screen -D
  
vim -o a.txt b.txt
+
== Reconnecting to screen ==
  
Use ^W to navigate windows then use directional keys h, j, k, l, etc.
+
$ screen -D
 +
$ screen -R
  
Use ^W and &lt; or &gt; to resize windows.
+
I have a script in ~/bin/reconnect like so,
  
== To indent a block of text in Vim ==
+
#!/bin/bash
 +
screen -D
 +
screen -R
  
Use the > command. E.g. to indent five lines:
+
This will detach your last screen, and reconnect it on the current terminal.
  
5 > >
+
== Scrolling in screen ==
  
Press . (dot) to keep indenting.
+
See [https://www.saltycrane.com/blog/2008/01/how-to-scroll-in-gnu-screen/ How to scroll in GNU Screen]. Basically press Ctrl+A ESC then use Page Up and Page Down. Press ESC again to exit copy mode. As usual you can use Ctrl+[ in place of ESC.
  
Or inside a block (e.g. curly brace, HTML/XML element, etc.) you can put your cursor in the element on on the curly brace and then:
+
= tmux =
  
> %
+
== Live collaboration with tmux ==
  
See [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/235839/indent-multiple-lines-quickly-in-vi#235841 here] for more.
+
User A:
  
== Open a file in a new window/tab ==
+
tmux -S /tmp/collab
 +
chmod 777 /tmp/collab
  
To open a file on the left hand side:
+
User B:
  
  :vert new filename.ext
+
  tmux -S /tmp/collab attach
  
Note: ':vnew filename.ext' and ':vsp filename.ext' also work.
+
= Vim =
  
To open a file at the top:
+
== First, why Vim? ==
  
:new filename.ext
+
Read [http://www.viemu.com/a-why-vi-vim.html Why, oh WHY, do those #?@! nutheads use vi?]
  
See [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/10760310/how-to-open-a-new-file-in-vim-in-a-new-window#10762678 here] for more.
+
== Visual modes ==
  
== Explore files in Vim ==
+
Use 'v' for visual mode, 'V' for visual line mode and Ctrl+V for visual block mode.
  
Enter:
+
== Configuring spaces instead of tabs ==
  
:Explore
+
I use two spaces instead of tabs. To configure, edit your .vimrc file:
  
== Switch between Vim tabs ==
+
$ vim ~/.vimrc
  
Use gt and gT.
+
and include the following lines:
  
== Switch between Vim windows ==
+
set tabstop=2
 +
set shiftwidth=2
 +
set expandtab
  
To toggle between open windows use:
+
== Configuring syntax highlighting ==
  
Ctrl+W W
+
See [http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/turn-on-or-off-color-syntax-highlighting-in-vi-or-vim/ here].
  
To move in a direction use:
+
Use:
  
  Ctrl+W h/j/k/l
+
  :syntax on
  
See [http://superuser.com/questions/280500/how-does-one-switch-between-windows-on-vim#280501 here] for more.
+
to turn on syntax highlighting.
  
== Insert block comment in Vim ==
+
Use:
  
See [https://stackoverflow.com/a/253391/868138 here] for line-commenting.
+
:syntax off
  
So it's:
+
to turn off syntax highlighting.
  
# Ctrl+V (Note: not Shift+V!)
+
To always use syntax highlighting:
# Up/Down to select rows
 
# Shift+I
 
# Enter your text, e.g. '#' or '//'
 
# Ctrl+[ (or 'Esc')
 
  
== Navigate to matching tag ==
+
$ vim ~/.vimrc
  
To navigate to the matching beginning or end tag use '%'.
+
and add:
  
You can also use e.g. '[{' to match the previous '{', or e.g. '])' to match the next ')'.
+
syntax on
  
== Auto-format HTML tags ==
+
To get a list of supported colour schemes open vim and type:
  
Stolen from [https://www.quora.com/How-do-you-auto-format-HTML-in-Vim here].
+
:colorscheme[space][Ctrl+D]
  
# first join all the lines - ggVGgJ
+
To always use a particular colorscheme edit ~/.vimrc and add (for example):
# Now break tags to new lines - :%s/>\s*</>\r</g
 
# Now set filetype - :set ft=html (you can do this before too)
 
# Now Indent - ggVG=
 
  
== Links ==
+
colorscheme desert
  
* [http://www.vim.org/ Vim: the editor]
+
== Inserting a TAB character when expandtab is on ==
* [http://yannesposito.com/Scratch/en/blog/Learn-Vim-Progressively/ Learn Vim Progressively]
 
* [http://michael.peopleofhonoronly.com/vim/ Vim cheat sheet for programmers]
 
* [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4781070/how-to-insert-tab-character-when-expandtab-option-is-on-in-vim How to insert Tab character when expandtab option is ON in VIM]
 
* [https://www.linux.com/learn/tutorials/8255-vim-tips-the-basics-of-search-and-replace Vim tips: the basics of search and replace]
 
* [http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/File_format File format]
 
* [http://www.viemu.com/a_vi_vim_graphical_cheat_sheet_tutorial.html Graphical vi-vim Cheat Sheet and Tutorial]
 
* [http://www.angelwatt.com/coding/notes/vim-commands.html Vim Commands Cheat Sheet]
 
  
= Write =
+
The problem here is that you have configured vim to insert spaces, but for a particular file (e.g. a Makefile) you need to insert a character.
  
== Talking to other users on the system ==
+
Press Ctrl+V TAB to insert a literal tab character.
  
'''write''' is a unix command for talking to other users on the system. To use '''write''':
+
Or you can disable tab expansion altogether with:
  
1. SSH to <username>@<hostname> and login with your username and password.
+
:set expandtab!
  
2. Issue the following command to find out who is logged onto the system:
+
== Changing 2 space indent to 4 space indent (e.g. for python files) ==
  
  $ who
+
  :%s/^\s*/&&/g
  
3. Issue the following command to talk to a specific user:
+
For more information [https://www.progclub.org/blog/2013/08/10/vim-reformat-a-python-file-to-have-4-space-indentations/ see here].
  
$ write <username>
+
== Recording and replaying a macro ==
  
4. Enter the message you'd like to send the user, followed by Ctrl+C to send. Press Ctrl+D to cancel.
+
To record a macro press 'q' and then a number between 1 and 9. E.g. press "q1". The macro is now recording. When you've finished issuing your commands press 'q' again to finish recording. To replay a macro press '@' followed by the number of the macro. That is, if you pressed "q1" to record the macro, press "@1" to replay the macro. To replay the last macro again press "@@".
  
= Date =
+
== Deleting to end of line ==
  
== Reporting the time on the server ==
+
d$
  
$ date
+
== Deleting to beginning of line ==
  
== Reporting UTC time ==
+
d^
  
$ date --utc
+
== Finding text ==
  
== Getting the date in yyyy-MM-dd-hhmmss format ==
+
To search forward for "text":
  
  $ date="`date +%F-%H%M%S`"
+
  /text
  
== Getting the year in four digits ==
+
To search backward for "text":
  
  $ year="`date +%Y`"
+
  ?text
  
== Getting the month in two digits ==
+
To repeat the last search in a forward direction press 'n', or to search again backwards press 'N'.
  
$ month="`date +%m`"
+
== Finding and replacing text ==
  
== Getting the day of the month in two digits ==
+
To replace the first instance of "search" on the current line with "destroy":
  
  $ day="`date +%d`"
+
  :s/search/destroy/
  
== Getting yesterday's date ==
+
To replace all instances of "search" on the current line with "destroy":
  
  $ date --date='1 day ago' +%Y-%m-%d
+
  :s/search/destroy/g
  
== Converting Unix time (seconds since epoch) ==
+
To replace all instances of "search" on lines 13 to 37 with "destroy":
  
For timestamp '1501370200':
+
:13,37 s/search/destroy/g
  
$ date -d @1501370200 +%F-%H%M%S
+
To replace all instances of "search" in the entire file with "destroy":
  
== Running timedatectl from systemd ==
+
:%s/search/destroy/g
  
There's a new command bundled with systmed:
+
== Changing DOS/Windows line-endings (CRLF) to Unix line-endings ==
  
# timedatectl
+
To set the line-ending to Unix line endings run the command:
  
It reports on (and controls) how the system time is configured.
+
:setlocal ff=unix
  
= MySQL =
+
More information on managing file formats [http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/File_format available here].
  
== Run mysql without authentication/authorisation ==
+
== Disabling auto-indent etc. to paste from clipboard ==
  
# service mysql stop
+
To disable smart indenting when you're going to paste in text:
# mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables &
 
  
Then you can connect without a password, e.g.:
+
:set paste
  
# mysql -u root mysql
+
To turn it off again:
  
To stop the unauthenticated service:
+
:set nopaste
  
# mysqladmin shutdown
+
There's more info in this article: [http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/Toggle_auto-indenting_for_code_paste Toggle auto-indenting for code paste]
  
Then restart a normal service:
+
== Positioning windows ==
  
# service mysql start
+
Use -o for horizontal split, e.g.:
  
== Logging all database queries ==
+
vim -o a.txt b.txt
  
# vim /etc/mysql/my.cnf
+
Use -O for vertical split, e.g.:
  
In the [mysqld] section add:
+
vim -o a.txt b.txt
  
log=/tmp/mysql.log
+
Use ^W to navigate windows then use directional keys h, j, k, l, etc.
  
Then:
+
Use ^W and &lt; or &gt; to resize windows.
  
# service mysql restart
+
== To indent a block of text in Vim ==
  
Watch the log with:
+
Use the > command. E.g. to indent five lines:
  
  # tail -f /tmp/mysql.log
+
  5 > >
  
== Dumping a MySQL database ==
+
Press . (dot) to keep indenting.
  
You can dump the database into a file using:  
+
Or inside a block (e.g. curly brace, HTML/XML element, etc.) you can put your cursor in the element on on the curly brace and then:
 
$ mysqldump -h hostname -u user --password=password databasename > filename
 
  
== Loading a MySQL database from a dump file ==
+
> %
  
You can create a database using:
+
See [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/235839/indent-multiple-lines-quickly-in-vi#235841 here] for more.
  
$ echo create database databasename | mysql -h hostname -u user -p
+
== Open a file in a new window/tab ==
  
You can restore a database using:
+
To open a file on the left hand side:
 
$ mysql -h hostname -u user --password=password databasename < filename
 
  
== Creating a MySQL user ==
+
:vert new filename.ext
  
# mysql -h localhost -u root --password=<password>
+
Note: ':vnew filename.ext' and ':vsp filename.ext' also work.
mysql> create user 'username'@'localhost' identified by '<password>';
 
  
== Granting all MySQL user permissions ==
+
To open a file at the top:
  
  # mysql -h localhost -u root --password=<password>
+
  :new filename.ext
mysql> grant all privileges on dbname.* to user@host;
 
  
== Select domain name from email address ==
+
See [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/10760310/how-to-open-a-new-file-in-vim-in-a-new-window#10762678 here] for more.
  
SELECT SUBSTR( email, INSTR( email, '@' ) + 1 )
+
== Explore files in Vim ==
  
== Check if MySQL connection is encrypted with TLS/SSL ==
+
Enter:
  
Check the SSL version in use:
+
:Explore
  
show status like 'Ssl_version';
+
== Switch between Vim tabs ==
  
Or check the cipher in use:
+
Use gt and gT.
  
show status like 'Ssl_cipher';
+
== Switch between Vim windows ==
  
= Apache =
+
To toggle between open windows use:
  
== Reporting loaded Apache modules ==
+
Ctrl+W W
  
# apache2ctl -M
+
To move in a direction use:
  
== Maintaining .htaccess passwords ==
+
Ctrl+W h/j/k/l
  
To add or modify the password for a user:
+
See [http://superuser.com/questions/280500/how-does-one-switch-between-windows-on-vim#280501 here] for more.
  
$ htpasswd /etc/apache2/passwd username
+
== Insert block comment in Vim ==
  
== Configuring PHP session timeout in .htaccess ==
+
See [https://stackoverflow.com/a/253391/868138 here] for line-commenting.
  
For a session timeout of 9 hours:
+
So it's:
  
php_value session.cookie_lifetime 32400
+
# Ctrl+V (Note: not Shift+V!)
php_value session.gc_maxlifetime 32400
+
# Up/Down to select rows
 +
# Shift+I
 +
# Enter your text, e.g. '#' or '//'
 +
# Ctrl+[ (or 'Esc')
  
== Disabling PHP magic quotes in .htaccess ==
+
== Navigate to matching tag ==
  
php_flag magic_quotes_gpc Off
+
To navigate to the matching beginning or end tag use '%'.
  
== Requiring HTTP Auth in .htaccess ==
+
You can also use e.g. '[{' to match the previous '{', or e.g. '])' to match the next ')'.
  
AuthType Basic
+
== Auto-format HTML tags ==
AuthName "Speak Friend And Enter"
 
AuthUserFile /home/jj5/.htpasswd
 
Require valid-user
 
  
== Restarting Apache ==
+
Stolen from [https://www.quora.com/How-do-you-auto-format-HTML-in-Vim here].
  
The hard way
+
# first join all the lines - ggVGgJ
 +
# Now break tags to new lines - :%s/>\s*</>\r</g
 +
# Now set filetype - :set ft=html (you can do this before too)
 +
# Now Indent - ggVG=
  
$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
+
== Links ==
  
The graceful way (avoids dropping active connections)
+
* [http://www.vim.org/ Vim: the editor]
 +
* [http://yannesposito.com/Scratch/en/blog/Learn-Vim-Progressively/ Learn Vim Progressively]
 +
* [http://michael.peopleofhonoronly.com/vim/ Vim cheat sheet for programmers]
 +
* [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4781070/how-to-insert-tab-character-when-expandtab-option-is-on-in-vim How to insert Tab character when expandtab option is ON in VIM]
 +
* [https://www.linux.com/learn/tutorials/8255-vim-tips-the-basics-of-search-and-replace Vim tips: the basics of search and replace]
 +
* [http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/File_format File format]
 +
* [http://www.viemu.com/a_vi_vim_graphical_cheat_sheet_tutorial.html Graphical vi-vim Cheat Sheet and Tutorial]
 +
* [http://www.angelwatt.com/coding/notes/vim-commands.html Vim Commands Cheat Sheet]
  
$ sudo apache2ctl graceful
+
== Create PDF from text using Vim ==
  
== Allowing directory browsing ==
+
Generate PDF from input.txt with:
  
To show directory index pages, in the apache config file:
+
$ vim input.txt -c "hardcopy > doc.ps | q" && ps2pdf doc.ps
  
<Directory /var/www/data>
+
Examine output with:
  Options Indexes
 
</Directory>
 
  
= C =
+
$ okular doc.pdf
  
== Locating memset function ==
+
= Write =
  
The memset function is in &lt;string.h> as described in this article [http://www.java-samples.com/showtutorial.php?tutorialid=591 Using memset(), memcpy(), and memmove() in C]
+
== Talking to other users on the system ==
  
== Links ==
+
'''write''' is a unix command for talking to other users on the system. To use '''write''':
  
* [http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-memory/ Inside memory management]
+
1. SSH to <username>@<hostname> and login with your username and password.
  
= PHP =
+
2. Issue the following command to find out who is logged onto the system:
  
== Including a file relative to the including file ==
+
$ who
  
require_once( dirname( __FILE__ ) . '/relative/path/to.php' );
+
3. Issue the following command to talk to a specific user:
  
== Enabling error reporting ==
+
$ write <username>
  
error_reporting( E_ALL | E_STRICT );
+
4. Enter the message you'd like to send the user, followed by Ctrl+C to send. Press Ctrl+D to cancel.
ini_set( 'display_errors', 'On' );
 
  
== Setting an error handler ==
+
= Date =
  
set_error_handler( "error_handler", E_ALL | E_STRICT );
+
== Reporting the time on the server ==
  
  function error_handler( $error_code, $error_message, $error_file, $error_line, $error_context ) {
+
  $ date
  // ...
 
}
 
  
== Disable HTML content in var_dump ==
+
== Reporting UTC time ==
  
  ini_set( 'html_errors', 'off' );
+
  $ date --utc
  
== Report PHP modules ==
+
== Getting the date in yyyy-MM-dd-hhmmss format ==
  
  $ php -m
+
  $ date="`date +%F-%H%M%S`"
  
== PHP Security Best Practices For Sys Admins ==
+
== Getting the year in four digits ==
  
See [https://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/php-security-best-practices-tutorial.html Linux 25 PHP Security Best Practices For Sys Admins].
+
$ year="`date +%Y`"
  
= BASH scripting =
+
== Getting the month in two digits ==
  
For a primer on bash scripting see [http://www.progsoc.org/tfm/tfm03/node37.html TFM: Erotic Fantasy: /bin/sh Programming].
+
$ month="`date +%m`"
  
== Telling a script to run in bash ==
+
== Getting the day of the month in two digits ==
  
The first line of the file should be:
+
$ day="`date +%d`"
  
#!/bin/bash
+
== Getting yesterday's date ==
  
== Checking if a command-line argument was passed in ==
+
$ date --date='1 day ago' +%Y-%m-%d
  
if [ -n "$1" ]; then
+
== Converting Unix time (seconds since epoch) ==
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
 
  exit 1;
 
fi
 
  
== Checking if a command-line argument was not passed in ==
+
For timestamp '1501370200':
  
  if [ "$1" = "" ]; then
+
  $ date -d @1501370200 +%F-%H%M%S
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
 
  exit 1;
 
fi
 
  
Or:
+
== Running timedatectl from systemd ==
  
if [ -z "$1" ]; then
+
There's a new command bundled with systmed:
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
 
  exit 1;
 
fi
 
  
== Checking command exit status ==
+
# timedatectl
  
cd /my/path
+
It reports on (and controls) how the system time is configured.
if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
 
  echo "Cannot change dir.";
 
  exit 1;
 
fi
 
  
== Checking if a file does/doesn't exist ==
+
= MySQL (and MariaDB) =
  
Check if file exists:
+
== Run mysql without authentication/authorisation ==
  
  if [ -f "/my/file" ]; then
+
  # service mysql stop
  cat /my/file
+
  # mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables &
  fi
 
  
Check if file doesn't exist:
+
Then you can connect without a password, e.g.:
  
  if [ ! -f "/my/file" ]; then
+
  # mysql -u root mysql
  touch /my/file
 
fi
 
  
== Checking if a directory does/doesn't exist ==
+
To stop the unauthenticated service:
  
Check if directory exists:
+
# mysqladmin shutdown
  
if [ -d "/my/dir" ]; then
+
Then restart a normal service:
  rmdir /my/dir
 
fi
 
  
Check if directory doesn't exist:
+
# service mysql start
  
if [ ! -d "/my/dir" ]; then
+
== Logging all database queries ==
  mkdir /my/dir
 
fi
 
  
== Deleting old backups ==
+
# vim /etc/mysql/my.cnf
  
To keep only the latest five backups:
+
In the [mysqld] section add:
  
  find . -maxdepth 1 -type f -printf '%T@ %p\0' | sort -r -z -n | awk 'BEGIN { RS="\0"; ORS="\0"; FS="" } NR > 5 { sub("^[0-9]*(.[0-9]*)? ", ""); print }' | xargs -0 rm -f
+
  log=/tmp/mysql.log
  
This script stolen from [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/25785/delete-all-but-the-most-recent-x-files-in-bash stackoverflow].
+
Then:
  
Requires GNU find for -printf, GNU sort for -z, GNU awk for "\0" and GNU xargs for -0, but handles files with embedded newlines or spaces.
+
# service mysql restart
  
== Changing into the script's directory ==
+
Watch the log with:
  
  cd "`dirname $0`"
+
  # tail -f /tmp/mysql.log
  
== Getting the absolute path of a relative path ==
+
Or:
  
  readlink -f ./some/path
+
  SET GLOBAL log_output = 'FILE';
 +
SET GLOBAL general_log_file = 'my_logs.txt';
 +
SET GLOBAL general_log = 'ON';
  
== Creating a temp directory ==
+
my_logs.txt will be in /var/lib/mysql
  
dir=`mktemp -d` && cd $dir
+
== Dumping a MySQL database ==
  
== Reading secret input from stdin ==
+
You can dump the database into a file using:
 +
 +
$ mysqldump -h hostname -u user --password=password databasename > filename
  
You can read a secret, such as a password, like this:
+
== Loading a MySQL database from a dump file ==
  
echo -n "Enter passphrase: "
+
You can create a database using:
stty -echo
 
read passphrase;
 
stty echo
 
echo ""
 
  
After running the above the secret will be in the $passphrase environment variable.
+
$ echo create database databasename | mysql -h hostname -u user -p
  
== String replacements in bash ==
+
You can restore a database using:
 +
 +
$ mysql -h hostname -u user --password=password databasename < filename
  
See the [http://www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/string-manipulation.html string manipulation] doco. Basically, to replace first occurrence:
+
== Creating a MySQL user ==
  
  result=${var/find/replace}
+
  # mysql -h localhost -u root --password=<password>
 +
mysql> create user 'username'@'localhost' identified by '<password>';
 +
 
 +
== Granting all MySQL user permissions ==
 +
 
 +
# mysql -h localhost -u root --password=<password>
 +
mysql> grant all privileges on dbname.* to user@host;
 +
 
 +
== Select domain name from email address ==
 +
 
 +
SELECT SUBSTR( email, INSTR( email, '@' ) + 1 )
  
To replace all occurrences:
+
== Check if MySQL connection is encrypted with TLS/SSL ==
  
result=${var//find/replace}
+
Check the SSL version in use:
  
A practical example, get an ISO date and turn it into a path:
+
show status like 'Ssl_version';
  
date="$(date +%Y-%m-%d)"
+
Or check the cipher in use:
work_dir=${date//-//}
 
  
== Sending a HEREDOC to a file ==
+
show status like 'Ssl_cipher';
  
cat << EOF > /tmp/yourfilehere
+
== Report on server config ==
These contents will be written to the file.
 
        This line is indented.
 
EOF
 
  
== Bash case/switch statement ==
+
See [https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/show.html SHOW Statements] for the full list, but check out:
  
See [http://tldp.org/LDP/Bash-Beginners-Guide/html/sect_07_03.html using case statements], e.g.:
+
SHOW VARIABLES
  
case $space in
+
and
[1-6]*)
 
  Message="All is quiet."
 
  ;;
 
[7-8]*)
 
  Message="Start thinking about cleaning out some stuff.  There's a partition that is $space % full."
 
  ;;
 
9[1-8])
 
  Message="Better hurry with that new disk...  One partition is $space % full."
 
  ;;
 
99)
 
  Message="I'm drowning here!  There's a partition at $space %!"
 
  ;;
 
*)
 
  Message="I seem to be running with an nonexistent amount of disk space..."
 
  ;;
 
esac
 
  
== Using dotglob shopt to match dot-files ==
+
SHOW STATUS
  
To enable dot-file matching in globs, set the dotglob shell option:
+
and
  
  $ shopt -s dotglob
+
  SHOW PROCESSLIST
  
== Stopping a script from running if it previously exited due to error ==
+
== Monitor MySQL activity ==
  
  persistentDataDir=/var/lib/something
+
  $ watch "mysql -t -e 'show processlist'"
alarm() {
 
  touch $persistentDataDir/alarm
 
}
 
trap alarm ERR
 
[ -f $persistentDataDir/alarm ] && exit 1
 
  
== Make sure only one instance of a script is running at a time ==
+
= Apache =
  
ephemeralDataDir=/var/run/something
+
== Reporting loaded Apache modules ==
unlock() {
 
  rmdir $ephemeralDataDir/lock
 
}
 
mkdir $ephemeralDataDir/lock || exit 1;
 
trap unlock EXIT
 
  
== BASH programming advice ==
+
# apache2ctl -M
  
See [https://blog.yossarian.net/2020/01/23/Anybody-can-write-good-bash-with-a-little-effort Anybody can write good bash (with a little effort)].
+
== Maintaining .htaccess passwords ==
  
== Run a command using arguments that come from an array ==
+
To add or modify the password for a user:
  
See [https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/412647/356289 here]:
+
$ htpasswd /etc/apache2/passwd username
  
#!/bin/bash
+
== Configuring PHP session timeout in .htaccess ==
tabs=("first tab" "second tab")
 
args=()
 
for t in "${tabs[@]}" ; do
 
  args+=(-t "$t")
 
done
 
app "${args[@]}"
 
  
= Sed =
+
For a session timeout of 9 hours:
  
== Find and replace with sed ==
+
php_value session.cookie_lifetime 32400
 +
php_value session.gc_maxlifetime 32400
  
To update the current file use '-i'. E.g.:
+
== Disabling PHP magic quotes in .htaccess ==
  
  sed -i 's/search-text/replace-text/' file
+
  php_flag magic_quotes_gpc Off
  
= Awk =
+
== Requiring HTTP Auth in .htaccess ==
  
== Listing IP addresses in an Apache web log ==
+
AuthType Basic
 +
AuthName "Speak Friend And Enter"
 +
AuthUserFile /home/jj5/.htpasswd
 +
Require valid-user
  
awk '/GET \/path\/for\/url/ { print $1 }' /var/log/apache2/access.log | sort | uniq
+
== Restarting Apache ==
  
== Printing space-separated field ==
+
The hard way
  
  echo 'no no yes no' | awk '{print $3}'
+
  $ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  
== Printing delimited field ==
+
The graceful way (avoids dropping active connections)
  
  echo 'no:no:yes:no' | awk -F ':' '{print $3}'
+
  $ sudo apache2ctl graceful
  
= Subversion =
+
== Allowing directory browsing ==
  
== Setting svn:externals from the command-line ==
+
To show directory index pages, in the apache config file:
  
See [http://beerpla.net/2009/06/20/how-to-properly-set-svn-svnexternals-property-in-svn-command-line/ here].
+
<Directory /var/www/data>
 +
  Options Indexes
 +
</Directory>
  
To set an svn:externals from the command-line:
+
= C =
  
svn propset svn:externals 'rdfind-php https://www.progclub.org/svn/pcrepo/rdfind.php/branches/0.1' .
+
== Locating memset function ==
svn ci -m 'Adding svn:externals for rdfind-php...'
 
svn up
 
  
Or to use a file:
+
The memset function is in &lt;string.h> as described in this article [http://www.java-samples.com/showtutorial.php?tutorialid=591 Using memset(), memcpy(), and memmove() in C]
  
svn propset svn:externals -F svn.externals .
+
== Links ==
  
== Setting svn:ignore from the command line ==
+
* [http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-memory/ Inside memory management]
  
See [http://tedone.typepad.com/blog/2010/03/setting-svnignore-from-the-command-line.html here].
+
= PHP =
  
$ svn propset svn:ignore [file|folder] [path]
+
== Including a file relative to the including file ==
  
Or use a file and apply recursively:
+
require_once( dirname( __FILE__ ) . '/relative/path/to.php' );
  
$ svn propset svn:ignore -RF ./svn-ignore-list.txt .
+
== Enabling error reporting ==
  
= Git =
+
error_reporting( E_ALL | E_STRICT );
 +
ini_set( 'display_errors', 'On' );
  
== Showing status of working copy ==
+
== Setting an error handler ==
  
  git status
+
  set_error_handler( "error_handler", E_ALL | E_STRICT );
  
== Showing repo history ==
+
function error_handler( $error_code, $error_message, $error_file, $error_line, $error_context ) {
 +
  // ...
 +
}
  
git log
+
== Disable HTML content in var_dump ==
  
== Showing remote repositories (including 'origin') ==
+
ini_set( 'html_errors', 'off' );
  
git remote -v
+
== Report PHP modules ==
  
== Handy git aliases ==
+
$ php -m
  
Save these to your ~/.gitconfig file.
+
== PHP Security Best Practices For Sys Admins ==
  
For a nicer view of history than standard 'git log' -- colourful, one-line-per commit, etc:
+
See [https://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/php-security-best-practices-tutorial.html Linux 25 PHP Security Best Practices For Sys Admins].
  
  graph = !git log --all --graph --color --abbrev-commit --pretty=oneline
+
= BASH scripting =
  
To show only the files that have changed, rather than the full line-by-line content:
+
For a primer on bash scripting see [http://www.progsoc.org/tfm/tfm03/node37.html TFM: Erotic Fantasy: /bin/sh Programming].
  
  dif  = !git diff --name-status
+
== Telling a script to run in bash ==
  
== Show git remote URL ==
+
The first line of the file should be:
  
  git config --get remote.origin.url
+
  #!/bin/bash
  
= IRC =
+
== Checking if a command-line argument was passed in ==
  
== Instructing ChanServ to op an admin ==
+
if [ -n "$1" ]; then
 +
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
 +
  exit 1;
 +
fi
  
/msg ChanServ op #channel user
+
== Checking if a command-line argument was not passed in ==
  
E.g.
+
if [ "$1" = "" ]; then
 +
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
 +
  exit 1;
 +
fi
  
/msg ChanServ op #gnurc jj5
+
Or:
  
Sub 'op' for 'deop' to remove op privilege.
+
if [ -z "$1" ]; then
 +
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
 +
  exit 1;
 +
fi
  
= C++ =
+
== Checking command exit status ==
  
== C++ books ==
+
cd /my/path
 +
if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
 +
  echo "Cannot change dir.";
 +
  exit 1;
 +
fi
 +
 
 +
== Checking if a file does/doesn't exist ==
  
=== Books I want ===
+
Check if file exists:
  
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1785283073 Boost.Asio C++ Network Programming 2ed]
+
if [ -f "/my/file" ]; then
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1783986549 Boost.Asio C++ Network Programming Cookbook]
+
  cat /my/file
 +
fi
  
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/020170353X Accelerated C++] by Andrew Koening
+
Check if file doesn't exist:
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321334876 Effective C++] by Scott Meyers
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1491903996 Effective Modern C++] by Scott Meyers
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/020163371X More Effective C++] by Scott Meyers
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201749629 Effective STL] by Scott Meyers
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201615622 Exceptional C++] by Herb Sutter
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/020170434X More Exceptional C++] by Herb Sutter
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201760428 Exceptional C++ Style] by Herb Sutter
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321227255 C++ Template Metaprogramming] by David Abrahams
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/059652269X 97 Things Every Software Architect Should Know] by Richard Monson-Haefel
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/9491028022 Introduction to the Boost C++ Libraries; Volume II - Advanced Libraries] by Robert Demming
 
  
=== Books I own ===
+
if [ ! -f "/my/file" ]; then
 +
  touch /my/file
 +
fi
  
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321563840 The C++ Programming Language 4ed] by Bjarne Stroustrup
+
== Checking if a directory does/doesn't exist ==
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/9491028022 Introduction to the Boost C++ Libraries; Volume II - Advanced Libraries]
 
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1849514887 Boost C++ Application Development Cookbook]
 
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1782163263 Boost.Asio C++ Network Programming]
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321113586 C++ Coding Standards] by Herb Sutter &#x2713;
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201704315 Modern C++ Design] by Andrei Alexandrescu &#x2713;
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0596809484 97 Things Every Programmer Should Know] by Kevlin Henney &#x2713;
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321133544 Beyond the C++ Standard Library] by Björn Karlsson &#x2713;
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/9491028014 Introduction to the Boost C++ Libraries; Volume I - Foundations] by Robert Demming &#x2713;
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0123850037 API Design for C++] by Martin Reddy &#x2713;
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00CB23URA Advanced C++ Metaprogramming] by Davide Di Gennaro &#x2713;
 
** Note: the next version of this book is: [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1484210115 Advanced Metaprogramming in Classic C++]
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1933988770 C++ Concurrency in Action: Practical Multithreading] by Anthony Williams &#x2713;
 
  
=== Books I'm not reading ===
+
Check if directory exists:
  
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321563840 The C++ Programming Language 3ed] by Bjarne Stroustrup &#x2713;
+
if [ -d "/my/dir" ]; then
** Note: 3ed is obsolete. Buy 4ed (above).
+
  rmdir /my/dir
 +
fi
  
=== Books I've read ===
+
Check if directory doesn't exist:
  
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0596004966 C++ Pocket Reference] by Kyle Loudon &#x2713;
+
if [ ! -d "/my/dir" ]; then
 +
  mkdir /my/dir
 +
fi
  
== C++ blogs/articles ==
+
== Deleting old backups ==
  
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/hsutter/ Herb Sutter's MSDN blog]
+
To keep only the latest five backups:
* [http://herbsutter.com/ Herb Sutter's personal blog]
 
* [http://herbsutter.com/gotw/ Herb Sutter's Guru of the Week (GotW)] updated from [http://gotw.ca/gotw/ gotw.ca]
 
  
== C++ performance tips ==
+
find . -maxdepth 1 -type f -printf '%T@ %p\0' | sort -r -z -n | awk 'BEGIN { RS="\0"; ORS="\0"; FS="" } NR > 5 { sub("^[0-9]*(.[0-9]*)? ", ""); print }' | xargs -0 rm -f
  
* ++c can be faster than c++.
+
This script stolen from [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/25785/delete-all-but-the-most-recent-x-files-in-bash stackoverflow].
* use const for everything that you possibly can.
 
* use 'inline' when you need to define a function in a header. Typically only do that if it's small and the increase in code size from inlining is worth the cost to avoid the cost of a function call. For anything except trivially small functions you'll probably need to profile to know if it's worth it.
 
* don't use registers.
 
* const [http://www.gotw.ca/gotw/081.htm rarely affects performance].
 
* debunking a number of [http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg21/docs/TR18015.pdf C++ myths that won't die].
 
* std::sort<> is typically faster than qsort() because it can avoid indirection at runtime.
 
* if you've got parallelisation going on, you may be able to just replace a std::for_each with a parallel equivalent.
 
* read about [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/579887/how-expensive-is-rtti performance cost of RTTI] (Run Time Type Information) and [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4486609/when-can-compiling-c-without-rtti-cause-problems how to disable it]
 
* don't use dynamic_cast because it is slow (typeid is faster but still relies on RTTI)
 
* prefer unique_ptr to shared_ptr when possible. unique_ptr has less overhead.
 
* [http://sunsite.uakom.sk/sunworldonline/swol-02-1996/swol-02-perf.html Which is better, static or dynamic linking?]
 
* [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2550281/floating-point-vs-integer-calculations-on-modern-hardware Integer vs Floating-Point performance]
 
  
= systemd =
+
Requires GNU find for -printf, GNU sort for -z, GNU awk for "\0" and GNU xargs for -0, but handles files with embedded newlines or spaces.
  
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemd systemd] is an init system used in most Linux distributions to bootstrap the user space and manage all processes subsequently.
+
== Changing into the script's directory ==
  
== Following a service log ==
+
cd "`dirname $0`"
  
e.g. for bind9:
+
== Getting the absolute path of a relative path ==
  
  # journalctl -f -u bind9
+
  readlink -f ./some/path
  
or for everything:
+
== Creating a temp directory ==
  
  # journalctl -f
+
  dir=`mktemp -d` && cd $dir
  
== System status ==
+
== Reading secret input from stdin ==
  
To see spawned services hierarchy:
+
You can read a secret, such as a password, like this:
  
  # systemctl status
+
  echo -n "Enter passphrase: "
 +
stty -echo
 +
read passphrase;
 +
stty echo
 +
echo ""
  
Or for a specific service e.g.:
+
After running the above the secret will be in the $passphrase environment variable.
  
# systemctl status networking
+
== String replacements in bash ==
  
= SaltStack =
+
See the [http://www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/string-manipulation.html string manipulation] doco. Basically, to replace first occurrence:
  
== Running a command on specified minions ==
+
result=${var/find/replace}
  
salt 'host' cmd.run 'update-locale'
+
To replace all occurrences:
  
== Running a command on all minions ==
+
result=${var//find/replace}
  
salt '*' cmd.run 'update-locale'
+
A practical example, get an ISO date and turn it into a path:
  
== Listing active jobs ==
+
date="$(date +%Y-%m-%d)"
 +
work_dir=${date//-//}
  
salt-run jobs.active
+
== Sending a HEREDOC to a file ==
  
== Listing available grains ==
+
cat << EOF > /tmp/yourfilehere
 +
These contents will be written to the file.
 +
        This line is indented.
 +
EOF
  
salt 'example' grains.items
+
== Bash case/switch statement ==
  
== Listing available pillar ==
+
See [http://tldp.org/LDP/Bash-Beginners-Guide/html/sect_07_03.html using case statements], e.g.:
  
  salt 'example' pillar.items
+
  case $space in
 +
[1-6]*)
 +
  Message="All is quiet."
 +
  ;;
 +
[7-8]*)
 +
  Message="Start thinking about cleaning out some stuff.  There's a partition that is $space % full."
 +
  ;;
 +
9[1-8])
 +
  Message="Better hurry with that new disk...  One partition is $space % full."
 +
  ;;
 +
99)
 +
  Message="I'm drowning here!  There's a partition at $space %!"
 +
  ;;
 +
*)
 +
  Message="I seem to be running with an nonexistent amount of disk space..."
 +
  ;;
 +
esac
  
== Reporting a grain value ==
+
== Using dotglob shopt to match dot-files ==
  
e.g. for the 'mem_total' grain:
+
To enable dot-file matching in globs, set the dotglob shell option:
  
  salt '*' grains.item mem_total
+
  $ shopt -s dotglob
  
== Passing a variable into a Jinja template from a salt state (SLS) ==
+
== Stopping a script from running if it previously exited due to error ==
  
e.g.: to pass 'zabbix_deb_{pkg,url}' variables into the source.txt template:
+
  persistentDataDir=/var/lib/something
 
+
alarm() {
  <nowiki>/srv/zabbix/release/{{ zabbix_deb_pkg }}.txt:</nowiki>
+
   touch $persistentDataDir/alarm
   file.managed:
+
}
    - template: jinja
+
trap alarm ERR
    - user: root
+
[ -f $persistentDataDir/alarm ] && exit 1
    - group: root
+
 
    - mode: 644
+
== Make sure only one instance of a script is running at a time ==
    - source: salt://file/srv/zabbix/release/source.txt
 
    - require:
 
      - file: /srv/zabbix/release
 
    - default:
 
      <nowiki>zabbix_deb_pkg: {{ zabbix_deb_pkg }}</nowiki>
 
      <nowiki>zabbix_deb_url: {{ zabbix_deb_url }}</nowiki>
 
  
= KDE =
+
ephemeralDataDir=/var/run/something
 +
unlock() {
 +
  rmdir $ephemeralDataDir/lock
 +
}
 +
mkdir $ephemeralDataDir/lock || exit 1;
 +
trap unlock EXIT
  
== Running user login script (X11/XOrg/XWindows) ==
+
== BASH programming advice ==
  
A way to run user login scripts which works for KDE Plasma (and apparently other [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X.Org_Server X.Org Server X Window System] environments) is to create a *.desktop file in ~/.config/autostart/. For example I have a ~/.config/autostart/ssh-add.desktop file with the following contents to register my SSH key in the SSH Agent:
+
See [https://blog.yossarian.net/2020/01/23/Anybody-can-write-good-bash-with-a-little-effort Anybody can write good bash (with a little effort)].
  
[Desktop Entry]
+
== Run a command using arguments that come from an array ==
Type=Application
 
Name=ssh-add
 
Comment=Adds my private key to my session.
 
Exec=/usr/bin/konsole -e 'ssh-add /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa'
 
  
== Standard KDE shortcut key bindings ==
+
See [https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/412647/356289 here]:
  
{|class="wikitable"
+
#!/bin/bash
! Name          !! Shortcut !! Command
+
tabs=("first tab" "second tab")
|-
+
args=()
| Insert comment || F1      || xdotool type "$(date +%Y-%m-%d ) $USER - "
+
for t in "${tabs[@]}" ; do
|-
+
  args+=(-t "$t")
| Insert sydtime || F4      || xdotool type "$(date +%Y-%m-%d-%H%M%S)"
+
done
|-
+
app "${args[@]}"
| Konsole        || Meta+T  || konsole
 
|-
 
| Dolphin        || Meta+E  || dolphin
 
|-
 
| Kate          || Ctrl+Shift+F12 || kate
 
|-
 
| KCalc          || Ctrl+Shift+F11 || kcalc
 
|-
 
| Firefox        || Ctrl+Shift+F10 || firefox
 
|}
 
  
= VirtualBox =
+
== Display a CSV in columnar or tabular format ==
  
== Mounting a VirtualBox VDI file ==
+
$ column -t -s , data.csv
  
Note: instead of doing this consider booting with a live CD.
+
== Maximum command line length ==
  
See [https://askubuntu.com/questions/19430/mount-a-virtualbox-drive-image-vdi/50290#50290 here]:
+
Technically this is an operating system limit, not a BASH limit.
  
Install qemu if necessary:
+
$ getconf ARG_MAX    # Get argument limit in bytes/chars
  
# apt install qemu
+
= Sed =
  
Then you'll need to load the network block device module:
+
== Find and replace with sed ==
  
# rmmod nbd
+
To update the current file use '-i'. E.g.:
# modprobe nbd max_part=16
 
  
Attach the .vdi image to one of the nbd you just created:
+
sed -i 's/search-text/replace-text/' file
  
# qemu-nbd -c /dev/nbd0 drive.vdi
+
= Awk =
  
Now you will get a /dev/nbd0 block device, along with several /dev/nbd0p* partition device nodes.
+
== Listing IP addresses in an Apache web log ==
  
  # mount /dev/nbd0p1 /mnt
+
  awk '/GET \/path\/for\/url/ { print $1 }' /var/log/apache2/access.log | sort | uniq
  
Once you are done, unmount everything and disconnect the device:
+
== Printing space-separated field ==
  
  # qemu-nbd -d /dev/nbd0
+
  echo 'no no yes no' | awk '{print $3}'
  
= Elasticsearch =
+
== Printing delimited field ==
  
== Report on health of your Elasticsearch cluster ==
+
echo 'no:no:yes:no' | awk -F ':' '{print $3}'
  
$ curl http://localhost:9200/_cluster/health?pretty
+
= Subversion =
  
= Zabbix =
+
== Setting svn:externals from the command-line ==
  
== Zabbix Agent on Mac OS X ==
+
See [http://beerpla.net/2009/06/20/how-to-properly-set-svn-svnexternals-property-in-svn-command-line/ here].
  
Download and install agent.
+
To set an svn:externals from the command-line:
 +
 
 +
svn propset svn:externals 'rdfind-php https://www.progclub.org/svn/pcrepo/rdfind.php/branches/0.1' .
 +
svn ci -m 'Adding svn:externals for rdfind-php...'
 +
svn up
 +
 
 +
Or to use a file:
 +
 
 +
svn propset svn:externals -F svn.externals .
 +
 
 +
== Setting svn:ignore from the command line ==
 +
 
 +
See [http://tedone.typepad.com/blog/2010/03/setting-svnignore-from-the-command-line.html here].
 +
 
 +
$ svn propset svn:ignore [file|folder] [path]
 +
 
 +
Or use a file and apply recursively:
 +
 
 +
$ svn propset svn:ignore -RF ./svn-ignore-list.txt .
 +
 
 +
= Git =
 +
 
 +
== Showing status of working copy ==
 +
 
 +
git status
 +
 
 +
== Showing repo history ==
  
Config file is here: /usr/local/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf
+
git log
  
Unload agent with:
+
== Showing remote repositories (including 'origin') ==
 +
 
 +
git remote -v
 +
 
 +
== Handy git aliases ==
 +
 
 +
Save these to your ~/.gitconfig file.
 +
 
 +
For a nicer view of history than standard 'git log' -- colourful, one-line-per commit, etc:
 +
 
 +
  graph = !git log --all --graph --color --abbrev-commit --pretty=oneline
 +
 
 +
To show only the files that have changed, rather than the full line-by-line content:
 +
 
 +
  dif  = !git diff --name-status
 +
 
 +
== Show git remote URL ==
 +
 
 +
git config --get remote.origin.url
 +
 
 +
= IRC =
 +
 
 +
== Instructing ChanServ to op an admin ==
 +
 
 +
/msg ChanServ op #channel user
 +
 
 +
E.g.
 +
 
 +
/msg ChanServ op #gnurc jj5
 +
 
 +
Sub 'op' for 'deop' to remove op privilege.
 +
 
 +
= C++ =
 +
 
 +
== C++ books ==
 +
 
 +
=== Books I want ===
 +
 
 +
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1785283073 Boost.Asio C++ Network Programming 2ed]
 +
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1783986549 Boost.Asio C++ Network Programming Cookbook]
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/020170353X Accelerated C++] by Andrew Koening
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321334876 Effective C++] by Scott Meyers
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1491903996 Effective Modern C++] by Scott Meyers
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/020163371X More Effective C++] by Scott Meyers
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201749629 Effective STL] by Scott Meyers
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201615622 Exceptional C++] by Herb Sutter
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/020170434X More Exceptional C++] by Herb Sutter
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201760428 Exceptional C++ Style] by Herb Sutter
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321227255 C++ Template Metaprogramming] by David Abrahams
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/059652269X 97 Things Every Software Architect Should Know] by Richard Monson-Haefel
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/9491028022 Introduction to the Boost C++ Libraries; Volume II - Advanced Libraries] by Robert Demming
 +
 
 +
=== Books I own ===
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321563840 The C++ Programming Language 4ed] by Bjarne Stroustrup
 +
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/9491028022 Introduction to the Boost C++ Libraries; Volume II - Advanced Libraries]
 +
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1849514887 Boost C++ Application Development Cookbook]
 +
* [http://smile.amazon.com/dp/1782163263 Boost.Asio C++ Network Programming]
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321113586 C++ Coding Standards] by Herb Sutter &#x2713;
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201704315 Modern C++ Design] by Andrei Alexandrescu &#x2713;
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0596809484 97 Things Every Programmer Should Know] by Kevlin Henney &#x2713;
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321133544 Beyond the C++ Standard Library] by Björn Karlsson &#x2713;
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/9491028014 Introduction to the Boost C++ Libraries; Volume I - Foundations] by Robert Demming &#x2713;
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0123850037 API Design for C++] by Martin Reddy &#x2713;
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00CB23URA Advanced C++ Metaprogramming] by Davide Di Gennaro &#x2713;
 +
** Note: the next version of this book is: [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1484210115 Advanced Metaprogramming in Classic C++]
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1933988770 C++ Concurrency in Action: Practical Multithreading] by Anthony Williams &#x2713;
 +
 
 +
=== Books I'm not reading ===
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0321563840 The C++ Programming Language 3ed] by Bjarne Stroustrup &#x2713;
 +
** Note: 3ed is obsolete. Buy 4ed (above).
 +
 
 +
=== Books I've read ===
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0596004966 C++ Pocket Reference] by Kyle Loudon &#x2713;
 +
 
 +
== C++ blogs/articles ==
 +
 
 +
* [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/hsutter/ Herb Sutter's MSDN blog]
 +
* [http://herbsutter.com/ Herb Sutter's personal blog]
 +
* [http://herbsutter.com/gotw/ Herb Sutter's Guru of the Week (GotW)] updated from [http://gotw.ca/gotw/ gotw.ca]
 +
 
 +
== C++ performance tips ==
 +
 
 +
* ++c can be faster than c++.
 +
* use const for everything that you possibly can.
 +
* use 'inline' when you need to define a function in a header. Typically only do that if it's small and the increase in code size from inlining is worth the cost to avoid the cost of a function call. For anything except trivially small functions you'll probably need to profile to know if it's worth it.
 +
* don't use registers.
 +
* const [http://www.gotw.ca/gotw/081.htm rarely affects performance].
 +
* debunking a number of [http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg21/docs/TR18015.pdf C++ myths that won't die].
 +
* std::sort<> is typically faster than qsort() because it can avoid indirection at runtime.
 +
* if you've got parallelisation going on, you may be able to just replace a std::for_each with a parallel equivalent.
 +
* read about [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/579887/how-expensive-is-rtti performance cost of RTTI] (Run Time Type Information) and [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4486609/when-can-compiling-c-without-rtti-cause-problems how to disable it]
 +
* don't use dynamic_cast because it is slow (typeid is faster but still relies on RTTI)
 +
* prefer unique_ptr to shared_ptr when possible. unique_ptr has less overhead.
 +
* [http://sunsite.uakom.sk/sunworldonline/swol-02-1996/swol-02-perf.html Which is better, static or dynamic linking?]
 +
* [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2550281/floating-point-vs-integer-calculations-on-modern-hardware Integer vs Floating-Point performance]
 +
 
 +
= systemd =
 +
 
 +
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemd systemd] is an init system used in most Linux distributions to bootstrap the user space and manage all processes subsequently.
 +
 
 +
== Following a service log ==
 +
 
 +
e.g. for bind9:
 +
 
 +
# journalctl -f -u bind9
 +
 
 +
or for everything:
 +
 
 +
# journalctl -f
 +
 
 +
== System status ==
 +
 
 +
To see spawned services hierarchy:
 +
 
 +
# systemctl status
 +
 
 +
Or for a specific service e.g.:
 +
 
 +
# systemctl status networking
 +
 
 +
= SaltStack =
 +
 
 +
== Running a command on specified minions ==
 +
 
 +
From the salt master:
 +
 
 +
salt 'host' cmd.run 'update-locale'
 +
 
 +
From the salt minion:
 +
 
 +
salt-call cmd.run 'update-locale'
 +
 
 +
== Running a command on all minions ==
 +
 
 +
salt '*' cmd.run 'update-locale'
 +
 
 +
== Running a specific state file ==
 +
 
 +
From the salt master:
 +
 
 +
salt $MINION_ID state.sls $STATE_FILE
 +
 
 +
From the salt minion:
 +
 
 +
salt-call state.sls $STATE_FILE
 +
 
 +
== Listing active jobs ==
 +
 
 +
salt-run jobs.active
 +
 
 +
== Listing available grains ==
 +
 
 +
salt 'example' grains.items
 +
 
 +
== Listing available pillar ==
 +
 
 +
salt 'example' pillar.items
 +
 
 +
== Reporting a grain value ==
 +
 
 +
e.g. for the 'mem_total' grain:
 +
 
 +
salt '*' grains.item mem_total
 +
 
 +
== Passing a variable into a Jinja template from a salt state (SLS) ==
 +
 
 +
e.g.: to pass 'zabbix_deb_{pkg,url}' variables into the source.txt template:
 +
 
 +
<nowiki>/srv/zabbix/release/{{ zabbix_deb_pkg }}.txt:</nowiki>
 +
  file.managed:
 +
    - template: jinja
 +
    - user: root
 +
    - group: root
 +
    - mode: 644
 +
    - source: salt://file/srv/zabbix/release/source.txt
 +
    - require:
 +
      - file: /srv/zabbix/release
 +
    - default:
 +
      <nowiki>zabbix_deb_pkg: {{ zabbix_deb_pkg }}</nowiki>
 +
      <nowiki>zabbix_deb_url: {{ zabbix_deb_url }}</nowiki>
 +
 
 +
= KDE =
 +
 
 +
== Running user login script (X11/XOrg/XWindows) ==
 +
 
 +
A way to run user login scripts which works for KDE Plasma (and apparently other [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X.Org_Server X.Org Server X Window System] environments) is to create a *.desktop file in ~/.config/autostart/. For example I have a ~/.config/autostart/ssh-add.desktop file with the following contents to register my SSH key in the SSH Agent:
 +
 
 +
[Desktop Entry]
 +
Type=Application
 +
Name=ssh-add
 +
Comment=Adds my private key to my session.
 +
Exec=/usr/bin/konsole -e 'ssh-add /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa'
 +
 
 +
== Standard KDE shortcut key bindings ==
 +
 
 +
{|class="wikitable"
 +
! Name          !! Shortcut !! Command
 +
|-
 +
| Insert comment || F1      || xdotool type "$(date +%Y-%m-%d ) $USER - "
 +
|-
 +
| Insert sydtime || F4      || xdotool type "$(date +%Y-%m-%d-%H%M%S)"
 +
|-
 +
| Konsole        || Meta+T  || konsole
 +
|-
 +
| Dolphin        || Meta+E  || dolphin
 +
|-
 +
| Kate          || Ctrl+Shift+F12 || kate
 +
|-
 +
| KCalc          || Ctrl+Shift+F11 || kcalc
 +
|-
 +
| Firefox        || Ctrl+Shift+F10 || firefox
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
== Shutting down KDE/Plasma ==
 +
 
 +
# /etc/init.d/sddm stop
 +
 
 +
= VirtualBox =
 +
 
 +
== Mounting a VirtualBox VDI file ==
 +
 
 +
Note: instead of doing this consider booting with a live CD.
 +
 
 +
See [https://askubuntu.com/questions/19430/mount-a-virtualbox-drive-image-vdi/50290#50290 here]:
 +
 
 +
Install qemu if necessary:
 +
 
 +
# apt install qemu
 +
 
 +
Then you'll need to load the network block device module:
 +
 
 +
# rmmod nbd
 +
# modprobe nbd max_part=16
 +
 
 +
Attach the .vdi image to one of the nbd you just created:
 +
 
 +
# qemu-nbd -c /dev/nbd0 drive.vdi
 +
 
 +
Now you will get a /dev/nbd0 block device, along with several /dev/nbd0p* partition device nodes.
 +
 
 +
# mount /dev/nbd0p1 /mnt
 +
 
 +
Once you are done, unmount everything and disconnect the device:
 +
 
 +
# qemu-nbd -d /dev/nbd0
 +
 
 +
= Elasticsearch =
 +
 
 +
== Report on health of your Elasticsearch cluster ==
 +
 
 +
$ curl http://localhost:9200/_cluster/health?pretty
 +
 
 +
= Zabbix =
 +
 
 +
== Zabbix Agent on Mac OS X ==
 +
 
 +
Download and install agent.
 +
 
 +
Config file is here: /usr/local/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf
 +
 
 +
Unload agent with:
  
 
  # launchctl unload /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.zabbix.zabbix_agentd.plist
 
  # launchctl unload /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.zabbix.zabbix_agentd.plist
  
Load agent with:
+
Load agent with:
 
+
 
  # launchctl load /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.zabbix.zabbix_agentd.plist
+
  # launchctl load /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.zabbix.zabbix_agentd.plist
 
+
 
To add a 'pki' group:
+
To add a 'pki' group:
 
+
 
  # dseditgroup -o create pki
+
  # dseditgroup -o create pki
 
+
 
To monitor syslog on Mac OS X:
+
To monitor syslog on Mac OS X:
 
+
 
  # tail -f /var/log/system.log
+
  # tail -f /var/log/system.log
 
+
 
== Installing Zabbix Agent from source on Mac OS X ==
+
== Installing Zabbix Agent from source on Mac OS X ==
 +
 
 +
Download sources from https://www.zabbix.com/download_sources
 +
 
 +
$ brew update
 +
$ brew install openssl
 +
$ brew install pcre
 +
jj5@condor:~/Desktop/zabbix-4.4.7$ ./configure --enable-agent --with-openssl=/usr/local/opt/openssl/
 +
jj5@condor:~/Desktop/zabbix-4.4.7$ sudo make install
 +
 
 +
= NetBeans =
 +
 
 +
== NetBeans shortcut keys ==
 +
 
 +
{|class="wikitable sortable"
 +
! Keys        !! Action
 +
|-
 +
| Ctrl+W      || Close active window
 +
|-
 +
| Alt+Shift+K  || Open in Terminal
 +
|-
 +
| Ctrl+U U    || Convert selected text to uppercase
 +
|-
 +
| Ctrl+U L    || Convert selected text to lowercase
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
= XML =
  
Download sources from https://www.zabbix.com/download_sources
+
== How to pretty-print an XML file ==
  
  $ brew update
+
  $ xmllint --format input.xml > output.xml
$ brew install openssl
 
$ brew install pcre
 
jj5@condor:~/Desktop/zabbix-4.4.7$ ./configure --enable-agent --with-openssl=/usr/local/opt/openssl/
 
jj5@condor:~/Desktop/zabbix-4.4.7$ sudo make install
 
  
= NetBeans =
+
= ApacheBench =
  
== NetBeans shortcut keys ==
+
== Run a benchmark with ApacheBench ==
  
{|class="wikitable sortable"
+
  $ ab -n 1000 -c 100 https://www.example.com/
! Keys        !! Action
 
|-
 
| Ctrl+W      || Close active window
 
|-
 
| Alt+Shift+K || Open in Terminal
 
|-
 
| Ctrl+U U    || Convert selected text to uppercase
 
|-
 
| Ctrl+U L    || Convert selected text to lowercase
 
|}
 

Revision as of 00:05, 17 May 2022

Hi there, I'm John. I just wanted a page where I could document various Linux things that I bump into. This is that page. Thank you ProgClub. :)

Note: I have some other disorganised notes on UNIX, which include a few tips for MacOS. I also have some tips for OS X.

Note: the info on this page is probably Ubuntu (and Debian as an outside chance) specific, because I use Ubuntu pretty much everywhere these days.

You might also be interested in John's hacks.

Quick jump to: NetBeans.

References

Command-line

See Shell Commands I Wish I Knew Earlier for some interesting options.

System

Reporting system specifications from the command-line

Try any of these:

# neofetch
# inxi
# hwinfo --short

You may need to install the relevant package.

Determining which Debian/Ubuntu release your are running

$ lsb_release -r

Or for more information:

$ lsb_release

Determining which Linux/Unix you are running

$ uname

Or,

$ uname -mrs

Or,

$ uname -a

Configuring system swappiness

Swappiness is a number between 0 and 100 that regulates how much the system uses the swap file. I like setting this value to 0 to keep my apps as responsive as possible. Create a file /etc/sysctl.d/local.conf and add this line:

vm.swappiness = 0

If you want to set the value for the current session only:

echo 0 > /proc/sys/vm/swappiness

Hardware information

For information about the hardware attached to your system, check out:

# lshw

And for PCI devices:

# lspci

And for DMI info:

# dmidecode

Note that the dmidecode command (above) will give you information about your system's motherboard. For motherboard info look for 'System Information' and/or 'Base Board Information'.

Or the grand daddy of them all:

# hwinfo

There's also inxi, e.g.:

$ inxi -b

System:    Host: tact Kernel: 4.9.0-4-amd64 x86_64 (64 bit) Desktop: KDE Plasma 5.8.6
           Distro: Debian GNU/Linux 9 (stretch)
Machine:   Device: desktop Mobo: ASUSTeK model: STRIX Z270F GAMING v: Rev 1.xx
           UEFI [Legacy]: American Megatrends v: 0906 date: 03/22/2017
CPU:       Quad core Intel Core i7-7700K (-HT-MCP-) speed/max: 799/4600 MHz
Graphics:  Card: Intel Device 5912
           Display Server: X.Org 1.19.2 drivers: modesetting (unloaded: fbdev,vesa)
           Resolution: 1920x1080@60.00hz, 1920x1080@60.00hz
           GLX Renderer: Mesa DRI Intel Kabylake GT2 GLX Version: 3.0 Mesa 13.0.6
Network:   Card: Intel Ethernet Connection (2) I219-V driver: e1000e
Drives:    HDD Total Size: 13026.6GB (42.0% used)
RAID:      Devices: 1: /dev/md1 2: /dev/md0
Info:      Processes: 355 Uptime: 11 days Memory: 21198.3/32043.3MB Client: Shell (bash) inxi: 2.3.5

Motherboard info

# dmidecode -t 2

CPU info

# lscpu

or:

# cat /proc/cpuinfo

RAM info

# dmidecode --type memory

PCI info

# lspci -v

Drive info

# cat /proc/partitions

and:

# hdparm -I /dev/sda

and:

# smartctl --info /dev/sda

You can check if a drive is SSD or not with:

# cat /sys/block/sde/queue/rotational
0=SSD
1=HDD

Viewing syslog and other logs with KSystemLog

Run the 'KSystemLog' program under KDE for a handy log viewer GUI.

CPU

Monitoring CPU clock speed

Try something like this:

$ watch 'grep MHz /proc/cpuinfo | awk "{ print \$4 }" | sort -n'

Power

Reporting on PowerShield DEFENDER UPS status

Before running `upsc` ensure service is running:

# upsdrvctl start

To see the status of the PowerShield DEFENDER systems on John's LAN:

$ upsc defender

E.g.:

jj5@orac:~$ upsc defender
Init SSL without certificate database
battery.charge: 100
battery.voltage: 27.40
battery.voltage.high: 26.00
battery.voltage.low: 20.80
battery.voltage.nominal: 24.0
device.type: ups
driver.name: blazer_usb
driver.parameter.pollinterval: 2
driver.parameter.port: auto
driver.parameter.synchronous: no
driver.version: 2.7.4
driver.version.internal: 0.12
input.current.nominal: 5.0
input.frequency: 50.1
input.frequency.nominal: 50
input.voltage: 242.6
input.voltage.fault: 242.6
input.voltage.nominal: 240
output.voltage: 242.6
ups.beeper.status: disabled
ups.delay.shutdown: 30
ups.delay.start: 180
ups.load: 14
ups.productid: 5161
ups.status: OL
ups.type: offline / line interactive
ups.vendorid: 0665

Run commands on PowerShield DEFENDER UPS batteries

You can run "instant commands" using the upscmd command.

We use the 'beeper.toggle' instant command in our Salt Stack config to disable the beeper, see e.g.:

diligence:/srv/salt/conf/app/defender-1200.sls

To see "instant commands" supported by the PowerShield DEFENDER:

$ upscmd -l defender

E.g.:

jj5@orac:~$ upscmd -l defender
Instant commands supported on UPS [defender]:

beeper.toggle - Toggle the UPS beeper
load.off - Turn off the load immediately
load.on - Turn on the load immediately
shutdown.return - Turn off the load and return when power is back
shutdown.stayoff - Turn off the load and remain off
shutdown.stop - Stop a shutdown in progress
test.battery.start - Start a battery test
test.battery.start.deep - Start a deep battery test
test.battery.start.quick - Start a quick battery test
test.battery.stop - Stop the battery test

Environment

Configuring vim as your editor

Sometimes all you need is:

$ export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim

Which works for svn, for example. Add it to your ~/.profile file to have it set for all login sessions.

Other times you need to run

# update-alternatives --config editor

And then select vim from the list. This is what you do to configure your visudo editor.

Configuring your locale

$ sudo /usr/sbin/locale-gen en_AU.UTF-8
$ sudo /usr/sbin/update-locale LANG=en_AU.UTF-8

User and group management

Adding a user

To add a new user on a linux system:

# useradd username
# passwd username

To have the home directory created from '/etc/skel' use the 'adduser' script instead:

# adduser username

Adding a user to a group

To add an existing user to an existing group:

# gpasswd -a username group

e.g. to add user 'jj5' to the 'sudo' group:

# gpasswd -a jj5 sudo

Alternatively you can use adduser, passing the username and group:

# adduser username group

e.g. to add user 'sclaughl' to the 'staff' group:

# adduser sclaughl staff

Disabling a user account

You can disable a user account with:

# passwd -l user

Note: that's a lower-case L, not a one.

Enabling a disabled user account

To can re-enable a locked user account with:

# passwd -u user

Finding which user you are logged in as

To determine which user you are running as enter the command:

$ whoami

Finding which groups you are a member of

To find which groups you are a member of:

$ groups

or

$ groups username

Where 'username' is the username of the user you are querying, e.g.:

$ groups jj5

Finding who else is logged in to the system

To see who else is logged in,

$ who

Running a command as a particular user

To run "svn update" as the user www-data:

$ sudo su -c "svn update" www-data

Reporting user and group info for the current user

$ id

Memory management

Checking available memory

To report memory statistics in megabytes:

$ free -m

Check for swap thrashing

Check your virtual memory status with vmstat:

$ vmstat

Report memory type

Report on RAM DIMMs:

# dmidecode --type 17

Report on RAM and CPU cache (including L1, L2, and L3):

# lshw -short -C memory

Or for more detail:

# lshw -C memory

Video/display management

Viewing EDID data for attached monitor

To view EDID data for an attached monitor (requires the edid-decode package):

$ cd /sys/class/drm
$ ls
$ cd card0-HDMI-A-1
$ edid-decode edid

Process management

Using 'top' for dynamic resource usage reporting

To run top:

$ top

See 15 Practical Linux Top Command Examples for some hints on usage.

To see usage for a specific user run e.g.:

$ top -u jj5

To see full command-line press 'c'.

When you're in 'top' you can:

  • press '1' (one) to toggle CPU aggregation
  • press < and > to change the sort column

Changing memory reporting in 'top'

To run top:

$ top

Press 'E' to switch between top memory units (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.)

Press 'e' to switch between bottom memory units (KiB, MiB, GiB, etc.)

Press 'M' to sort by memory utilisation.

Press 'm' to switch between various display modes.

Showing full command-line in 'top'

To see the full command-line for processes run with -c:

$ top -c

Listing all processes currently running which were started in your current shell session

$ ps -fl

Killing specific processes

# ps aux | grep -e "this\|that" | grep -v grep | tr -s " " | cut -d " " -f 2 | xargs kill -9

Run a command for a specified time using timeout

$ timeout 3 ping jj5.net

Disk management

Reporting ext4 file-systems mounted without noatime

$ cat /proc/mounts | grep ext | grep -v noatime | sort

Creating a partition table

# parted /dev/xvdf
mktable msdos

Creating a partition

# parted /dev/xvdf
u MiB
mkpart primary 1 100%

Creating an ext4 file-system

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdf1

Listing disk drives

# fdisk -l

(That's an L for "list")

Checking available disk space

$ df -h

Getting disk information

# lsblk

And

# cat /proc/partitions

Or the Grand Daddy of them all:

# lshw -class disk

(Requires the lshw package.)

Getting partition UUID and file-system type

# blkid

Checking for SSD vs magnetic disk

# cat /sys/block/sda/queue/rotational

Will be 0 for SSD and 1 for magnetic.

Monitoring a ZFS server

So some commands I run to keep an eye on my new ZFS servers:

# top
# iotop
# nethogs
# watch free -h
# watch slabtop -o
# slabtop
# watch cat /proc/meminfo
# perf top
# watch "df -h | grep -v -e tmpfs -e udev -e by-uuid"
# watch zpool iostat -v
# zpool iostat -v 2
# watch 'zpool list; echo; zfs list'
# watch zfs get compressratio -o all
# watch cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats

If you have a scrub or resilvering in progress you can report on progress with:

# watch zpool status -v

You can poke about in internals, e.g.:

# cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats
root@orac:/sys/module/zfs/parameters# tail *

You can report on property values with e.g.:

# zfs get all data

If you want to get funky:

# cd /tmp
# perf record -ag #(Ctrl+C after ~15 seconds)
# perf report --stdio

You can search for ZFS files like e.g. this:

root@orac:/# find / -name '*zfs*' -or -name '*zpool*'

You can report history of a zpool:

# zpool history $poolname

You can get a report on the dedup tables:

# zpool status -D $poolname

Or more detailed dedup table info:

# zdb -DDD $poolname

Note in the output see here for details, basically:

Abbr Description
LSIZE logical size (in memory)
PSIZE physical size
DSIZE size on disk
refcnt reference count

How to tell if zfs scrub is running

You can get the status from the "scan:" line from:

$ zpool status

Measure data throughput

Use the 'pv' command from the 'pv' package, e.g.:

# cat /dev/sda | pv | cat > /dev/null

Or for ZFS:

# zfs send data/example | pv | cat > /dev/null

Using Smartctl, Smartd and Hddtemp on Debian

For notes on using smartctl see Using Smartctl, Smartd and Hddtemp on Debian.

Report hard disk usage

So you might want to know how much data a process reads or writes to a hard disk. You can monitor process total disk utilisation with the 'iotop' command. Run 'iotop' and then press 'a' for --accumulated.

Report hard disk temperatures

E.g.

# hddtemp /dev/sd[a-e]

Burning an ISO image to USB on Mac

First insert your USB key and find the appropriate disk with:

# diskutil list

Then unmount it with:

# diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk4

Then copy ISO image with 'dd':

# dd if=ubuntu-18.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso of=/dev/disk4

You can get dd to report progress by sending it the SIGINFO signal:

# kill -s info 12345

Listing all ext4 file systems

To see a list only of the mounted ext4 file systems:

# df -t ext4

Report hierarchical file system mount points and mount options

$ findmnt

Report the mount point for the current working directory

$ findmnt "$PWD"

Monitoring disk I/O

There's an app for that! iotop.

Using iotop, top for disks

# iotop -oPa

Monitor disk I/O for performance issues

# watch iostat

Or e.g.

# watch iostat -xd /dev/sd[abc]

Or use groupings like this command for 'tact':

$ iostat -g system nvme0n1 -g fast sda sdb -g data sdc sdd -d 2

Monitoring a system

Simple ZFS monitoring

# watch iostat
# iotop
# zpool iostat -v 5
# watch 'hddtemp /dev/sd[a-e]; echo; zpool list; echo; zfs list'
# nethogs
# top

Monitoring temperature

See temperature without third-party apps for:

$ cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/temp

and:

$ paste <(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/type) <(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone*/temp) | column -s $'\t' -t | sed 's/\(.\)..$/.\1°C/'

Monitoring CPU temperature

$ watch sensors

Monitoring HDD temperature

For e.g. SATA drives sda to sdd:

# watch hddtemp /dev/sd[a-d]

ZFS

How can I determine the current size of the ARC in ZFS, and how does the ARC relate to free or cache memory?

See How can I determine the current size of the ARC in ZFS, and how does the ARC relate to free or cache memory?

$ cat /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats

Then:

c is the target size of the ARC in bytes
c_max is the maximum size of the ARC in bytes
size is the current size of the ARC in bytes

Stopping a ZFS scrub in progress

# zpool scrub -s $pool

e.g. for the 'data' pool:

# zpool scrub -s data

File management

Listing files by size

Use capital S for Size:

$ ls -S

Listing only directories

$ ls -l | egrep '^d'

Listing only files

$ ls -l | egrep -v '^d'

Listing hidden files

$ ls -al .[!.]*

Creating a symbolic link

$ ln -s /path/to/target link-name

Creating a hard-link

$ ln /path/to/target file-name

Changing the owner of a file

$ chown user:group <files>

E.g.

$ chown jj5:staff README
$ chown root:root *

To apply recursively into sub-directories use -R,

$ chown -R root:root /etc/*

Changing file permissions

Object codes
User Group Other
u g o
Permission codes
Read Write Exectue
r w x
4 2 1
Numeric codes
0 None
1 Execute
2 Write
3 Write, Execute
4 Read
5 Read, Execute
6 Read, Write
7 Read, Write, Execute

See Numeric Mode in Action.

$ chmod <user numeric code><group numeric code><other numeric code> <files>
$ chmod <object codes>+|-<permission codes> <files>

E.g.

$ chmod 600 my-private-file
$ chmod go-rwx my-private-file
$ chmod u+rw my-private-file
$ chmod +x my-script

Updating config files

If you get given a new config file called new.conf and you want to integrate it with your old config file old.conf then:

$ cp old.conf updated.conf
$ merge -A updated.conf new.conf old.conf

Then go through and edit updated.conf resolving all the merge errors, picking and choosing what to update and what to keep. When you're done copy updated.conf to old.conf so it becomes the new config file.

The merge program is a part of the RCS package. If you don't have it:

$ sudo apt-get install rcs

Listing open files

Use lsof to list open files. E.g.:

# lsof

See man lsof for options.

List permissions on a whole directory path

E.g.:

$ namei -om /home/jj5/workspace

Outputs:

f: /home/jj5/workspace/
 drwxr-xr-x root root /
 drwxr-xr-x root root home
 drwxr-xr-x jj5  jj5  jj5
 drwxr-xr-x jj5  jj5  workspace

Counting non-blank lines in a file

E.g.:

$ cat foo.c | sed '/^\s*$/d' | wc -l

Cloning one directory to another with rsync

E.g.:

rsync --acls --xattrs --stats --human-readable --recursive --del --force --times --links --hard-links --executability --numeric-ids --owner --group --perms --sparse --compress-level=0 /data/source/ hostname:/data/target/

Counting number of files in current directory and all subdirectories

$ ls -AlhR . | egrep '^-' | wc -l

Counting number of directories in current directory and all subdirectories

$ ls -AlhR . | egrep '^d' | wc -l

Getting the status of a 'dd' process

First figure out the 'dd' process number, with e.g. 'top' or 'ps aux | grep dd'

Then send the dd process the SIGINFO signal, which for dd process 40947 would be:

# kill -s info 40947

The dd process will report its status in the terminal its running in.

Transferring a large file via FAT32 file system

So the maximum file size supported by a FAT32 file system (commonly used on USB keys) is 4 GB per file. If you have a file larger than 4 GB you can split it into parts and then reassemble the parts once transferred:

$ split -b 4000m input.tgz input.tgz-parts-

Then copy the small files and reassemble:

$ cat input.tgz-parts-* > output.tgz

Find the difference between two directories

$ diif -qr $DIR_A $DIR_B

NFS

List NFS shares

To e.g. show NFS shares on 'love':

$ showmount -e love

Compression

How to use pigz with tar

See here:

$ tar cf - paths-to-archive | pigz --best -p 8 > archive.tgz

Note: don't use --best unless you're being stingy, running without it will be much faster.

Also from here:

Fast pack:

tar -I 'pigz --fast' -cf my.tar.gz whatver

Best pack:

tar -I 'pigz --best' -cf my.tar.gz whatver

Fast unpack:

tar -I pigz -xf my.tar.gz

Best compression with tar

From here:

export GZIP=-9
tar cvzf file.tar.gz /path/to/directory

or

env GZIP=-9 tar cvzf file.tar.gz /path/to/directory

Best parallel compression with pigz

$ pigz --best

Best parallel compression with xz

$ xz -9e -T 0

Reporting compression ratios with xz

e.g.

root@love:/data/image/archive# xz -l *
Strms  Blocks   Compressed Uncompressed  Ratio  Check   Filename
    1       3    372.2 MiB    442.3 MiB  0.841  CRC64   1999.txz
    1      29  5,281.3 MiB  5,542.5 MiB  0.953  CRC64   2001.txz
    1      11  1,364.3 MiB  2,084.3 MiB  0.655  CRC64   2002.txz
    1       9    568.5 MiB  1,660.2 MiB  0.342  CRC64   2003.txz
    1     639     66.8 GiB    119.6 GiB  0.558  CRC64   2004.txz
    1     313     12.7 GiB     58.6 GiB  0.217  CRC64   2005.txz
    1     414     35.0 GiB     77.4 GiB  0.452  CRC64   2006.txz
    1     485     44.5 GiB     90.9 GiB  0.490  CRC64   2007.txz
    1   1,690    150.0 GiB    316.8 GiB  0.473  CRC64   2008.txz
    1       3    457.9 MiB    526.0 MiB  0.871  CRC64   2009.txz
    1     168     27.3 GiB     31.4 GiB  0.868  CRC64   2010.txz
    1       4    477.1 MiB    702.8 MiB  0.679  CRC64   2011.txz
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   12   3,768    344.6 GiB    705.5 GiB  0.488  CRC64   12 files

Symbolic-link management

== Data used by sym-linked files:

This will de-reference the sym-links in the current directory and tell you how much data the files pointed to by the sym-links are using:

jj5@tact:/data/backup/unity/latest$ du -hD * | sort -h

File searching

Finding a file with a particular name

$ find -iname "*some-part-of-the-file-name*"

Will start searching from the current directory, so maybe

$ cd /

first. For a case-sensitive search:

$ find -name "*eXaCT CaSE*"

Finding a file with particular content

To search in /etc/ for a file with particular content:

$ grep -R "search-string" /etc/*

To search the current directory for *.cs files containing the word "Up":

$ find . -name '*.cs' -exec grep --color=auto -H Up {} \;

Finding a list of files with particular content

E.g. to find all the files with the word 'creativity':

$ grep -R creativity . | sed 's/:/ /' | awk '{ print $1 }' | sort | uniq

Using the locate command to find files

$ locate part-of-filename

E.g.

$ locate texvc

Updating locate command's database

# updatedb

Select a random line from a text file

$ shuf -n 1 input.txt

Extra context for grep

If you need to show extra lines before or after your grep results use -B NUM to set how many lines before the match and -A NUM for the number of lines after the match:

$ grep -B 3 -A 1 ...

Job control

Stopping a running process

Press Ctrl+Z to stop a running process.

Listing current jobs and their status

$ jobs

Resuming a stopped job in the backgroud

To resume a stopped process in the background

$ bg %1

where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').

Resuming a stopped job in the foreground

To resume a stopped process in the foreground

$ fg %1

where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').

Killing a stopped job

To kill a job

$ kill %1

where '1' is the job number reported by bash when you pressed Ctrl+Z (or ran 'jobs').

Periodically run a program and watch its output

$ watch /your/command

Debian/Ubuntu package management

Also see Where "is" it? on the Debian Wiki.

configuring debconf

# dpkg-reconfigure debconf 

Set priority to low to get asked detailed questions.

Showing list of installed packages

# dpkg --get-selections

Searching for installed package

# dpkg --get-selections | grep package-name

or

# aptitude search package-name

Showing which files are installed as part of a package

# dpkg -L package-name

Installing a package

# apt-get install package-name

Uninstalling a package

# apt-get remove package-name

Showing system architecture

$ dpkg --print-architecture

Showing which package a file belongs to

$ which echo
/bin/echo
$ dpkg -S /bin/echo
coreutils: /bin/echo
$ dpkg -l | grep coreutils
ii  coreutils                         6.10-6                   The GNU core utilities

Showing package information

$ apt-cache showpkg coreutils

Or for even more information:

$ apt-cache show coreutils

List all installed packages with package version info

dpkg-query -l

Reporting which version of a package is installed

$ dpkg -l | grep package-name

E.g.:

root@hope:~/letsencrypt# dpkg -l | grep augeas
ii  augeas-lenses                   0.7.0-1ubuntu1                 Set of lenses needed by libaugeas0 to parse 
ii  libaugeas0                      0.7.0-1ubuntu1                 The augeas configuration editing library and

Comprehensive upgrade

Try the following:

# apt-get update
# apt-get dist-upgrade
# apt-get autoremove
# apt-get remove $(deborphan)
# update-flashplugin-nonfree --install

Searching all available packages

$ apt-cache search . | sort -d | less

Reporting unattended upgrades status

See here for more info.

# tail -f /var/log/unattended-upgrades/unattended-upgrades.log

Searching for Debian packages and versions

Networking

Determining throughput between two hosts

# apt install iperf3

On the server:

# iperf3 -s

On the client:

# iperf3 -c $SERVER_IP

For more info see: How to test the network speed/throughput between two Linux servers.

net-tools vs iproute2

The older 'net-tools' package has been replaced with 'iproute2' e.g. in stretch.

legacy net-tools commands iproute2 replacement commands
arp ip n (ip neighbor)
ifconfig ip a (ip addr), ip link, ip -s (ip -stats)
iptunnel ip tunnel
iwconfig iw
nameif ip link, ifrename
netstat ss, ip route (for netstat-r), ip -s link (for netstat -i), ip maddr (for netstat-g)
route ip r (ip route)

Restart networking

For servers:

# service networking restart

For desktops:

# service network-manager restart

Pinging with particular packet size

$ ping -M do -s <packet size in bytes> <host>

E.g.

$ ping -M do -s 1400 charity.progclub.org

Setting MSS for a particular IP address on a particular interface

# ip route add <host> dev <interface> advmss <packet size>

E.g.

# ip route add 10.0.0.1 dev eth0 advmss 1400

Dropping configured MMS for a particular IP address

# ip route flush <host>

E.g.

# ip route flush 10.0.0.1

Listing open ports and socket information

Including which process is listening on which port.

# netstat -tulpn

Or use the 'ss' command:

# ss -s
# ss -l
# ss -pl
# ss -o state established '( dport = :smtp or sport = :smtp )'

Listing open IPv4 connections

# lsof -Pnl +M -i4

You might need to install the lsof package:

# apt-get install lsof

Query for DNS MX record

$ nslookup
> server 127.0.0.1
> set q=mx
> mail.blackbrick.com

Query for DNS SOA record

$ dig @ns2.staticmagic.net -t SOA staticmagic.net

Using nmap to list open ports on remote host

To check the 1,000 most common ports:

# nmap server.example.com

Or for a specific port range (e.g. 101 to 102):

# nmap -p 101-102 server.example.com

Or for all ports (1 to 65,535):

# nmap -p- server.example.com

Network monitoring

See here for details. Basically:

  1. Overall bandwidth: nload, bmon, slurm, bwm-ng, cbm, speedometer, netload
  2. Overall bandwidth (batch style output): vnstat, ifstat, dstat, collectl
  3. Bandwidth per socket connection: iftop, iptraf, tcptrack, pktstat, netwatch, trafshow
  4. Bandwidth per process: nethogs

nload

You can watch network traffic in real-time with nload:

# nload -u M

Reporting network (NIC) speed

From here:

# dmesg | grep eth0
# mii-tool -v eth0
# ethtool eth0

Note: use ifconfig to get device name.

Path MTU discovery

To do a Path MTU Discovery, from the iputils-tracepath package:

# tracepath host.example.com

Listing available Ethernet devices

To see a list of NICs available on the host:

$ cat /proc/net/dev

Also

$ ip link

59 Linux Networking commands and scripts

See 59 Linux Networking commands and scripts.

Links

IPTables

Applying firewall rules

For configuration info see this article.

$ sudo vim /etc/iptables.test.rules
$ sudo /sbin/iptables -F
$ sudo /sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.test.rules
$ sudo iptables -L
$ sudo -s
# iptables-save > /etc/iptables.up.rules
# exit

Blocking an IP address with iptables

To drop IP address 1.2.3.4:

# iptables -A INPUT -s 1.2.3.4 -j DROP

ufw

Denying hosts with ufw

See denying hosts with ufw.

Bind9

Viewing Bind9 querylog

$ sudo rndc querylog
$ tail -f /var/log/syslog

IPSec

Disabling IPSec

# setkey -FP

OpenSSL

Debugging IMAPS with OpenSSL

# openssl s_client -connect localhost:993
> a1 LOGIN username@host password
> a2 LOGOUT

Debugging HTTPS with OpenSSL

$ openssl s_client -connect www.example.com:443
GET /example.html HTTP/1.1
host: www.example.com

Links

Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)

Links

SSH

Configuring SSH key login

On the client machine generate a key-pair (if necessary, check for existing ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub):

$ ssh-keygen -t rsa

Copy the public key from the client to the server:

$ scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub user@example.org:

Configure the authorized keys on the server:

$ ssh user@example.org
$ mkdir ~/.ssh
$ chmod go-w .ssh
$ cat ~/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
$ chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
$ rm ~/id_rsa.pub

Tunneling over SSH

For example, connecting a remote MySQL server to the localhost:

$ ssh -L 3306:localhost:3306 jselliot@ssh.progsoc.org

If the machine you want to connect to is not the localhost of the machine you're ssh'ing to,

 $ ssh -L 3306:muspell.progsoc.uts.edu.au:3306 ssh.progsoc.uts.edu.au

The -L stanza is localport:remotehost:remoteport where localport is a port on your machine, forwarded to remoteport on remotehost.

Tunneling over SSH with PuTTY

See Connecting to the MySQL database remotely (via an SSH Tunnel)

  • run putty.exe
  • Connection -> SSH -> Tunnels
    • Port forwarding: source port to 3306
    • destination: 127.0.0.1:3306
    • check Local
    • click Add

Enabling verbose SSH logging

To see what's going on with your ssh connections,

$ ssh -v user@host

Or

$ ssh -vv user@host

Unlocking SSH key for session

jj5@orac:~/.config/autostart$ cat ssh-add.desktop 
[Desktop Entry]
Type=Application
Name=ssh-add
Comment=Adds my private key to my session.
Exec=/usr/bin/konsole -e 'ssh-add /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa'

Links

Standard IO

cat EOF

$ cat > output <<EOF
> text
> EOF
$ cat output
text

Script

Creating a session log with script

$ script -t 2> timing

The session log is in the file 'typescript' and the timing data is in 'timing'.

Replaying a scripted session

$ scriptreplay timing

Uses the default file 'typescript' and the 'timing' file as specified.

Screen

Creating a new screen or reconnecting to a detached screen

$ screen -R

Detaching a screen

$ screen -D

Reconnecting to screen

$ screen -D
$ screen -R

I have a script in ~/bin/reconnect like so,

#!/bin/bash
screen -D
screen -R

This will detach your last screen, and reconnect it on the current terminal.

Scrolling in screen

See How to scroll in GNU Screen. Basically press Ctrl+A ESC then use Page Up and Page Down. Press ESC again to exit copy mode. As usual you can use Ctrl+[ in place of ESC.

tmux

Live collaboration with tmux

User A:

tmux -S /tmp/collab
chmod 777 /tmp/collab

User B:

tmux -S /tmp/collab attach

Vim

First, why Vim?

Read Why, oh WHY, do those #?@! nutheads use vi?

Visual modes

Use 'v' for visual mode, 'V' for visual line mode and Ctrl+V for visual block mode.

Configuring spaces instead of tabs

I use two spaces instead of tabs. To configure, edit your .vimrc file:

$ vim ~/.vimrc

and include the following lines:

set tabstop=2
set shiftwidth=2
set expandtab

Configuring syntax highlighting

See here.

Use:

:syntax on

to turn on syntax highlighting.

Use:

:syntax off

to turn off syntax highlighting.

To always use syntax highlighting:

$ vim ~/.vimrc

and add:

syntax on

To get a list of supported colour schemes open vim and type:

:colorscheme[space][Ctrl+D]

To always use a particular colorscheme edit ~/.vimrc and add (for example):

colorscheme desert

Inserting a TAB character when expandtab is on

The problem here is that you have configured vim to insert spaces, but for a particular file (e.g. a Makefile) you need to insert a character.

Press Ctrl+V TAB to insert a literal tab character.

Or you can disable tab expansion altogether with:

:set expandtab!

Changing 2 space indent to 4 space indent (e.g. for python files)

:%s/^\s*/&&/g

For more information see here.

Recording and replaying a macro

To record a macro press 'q' and then a number between 1 and 9. E.g. press "q1". The macro is now recording. When you've finished issuing your commands press 'q' again to finish recording. To replay a macro press '@' followed by the number of the macro. That is, if you pressed "q1" to record the macro, press "@1" to replay the macro. To replay the last macro again press "@@".

Deleting to end of line

d$

Deleting to beginning of line

d^

Finding text

To search forward for "text":

/text

To search backward for "text":

?text

To repeat the last search in a forward direction press 'n', or to search again backwards press 'N'.

Finding and replacing text

To replace the first instance of "search" on the current line with "destroy":

:s/search/destroy/

To replace all instances of "search" on the current line with "destroy":

:s/search/destroy/g

To replace all instances of "search" on lines 13 to 37 with "destroy":

:13,37 s/search/destroy/g

To replace all instances of "search" in the entire file with "destroy":

:%s/search/destroy/g

Changing DOS/Windows line-endings (CRLF) to Unix line-endings

To set the line-ending to Unix line endings run the command:

:setlocal ff=unix

More information on managing file formats available here.

Disabling auto-indent etc. to paste from clipboard

To disable smart indenting when you're going to paste in text:

:set paste

To turn it off again:

:set nopaste

There's more info in this article: Toggle auto-indenting for code paste

Positioning windows

Use -o for horizontal split, e.g.:

vim -o a.txt b.txt

Use -O for vertical split, e.g.:

vim -o a.txt b.txt

Use ^W to navigate windows then use directional keys h, j, k, l, etc.

Use ^W and < or > to resize windows.

To indent a block of text in Vim

Use the > command. E.g. to indent five lines:

5 > >

Press . (dot) to keep indenting.

Or inside a block (e.g. curly brace, HTML/XML element, etc.) you can put your cursor in the element on on the curly brace and then:

> %

See here for more.

Open a file in a new window/tab

To open a file on the left hand side:

:vert new filename.ext

Note: ':vnew filename.ext' and ':vsp filename.ext' also work.

To open a file at the top:

:new filename.ext

See here for more.

Explore files in Vim

Enter:

:Explore

Switch between Vim tabs

Use gt and gT.

Switch between Vim windows

To toggle between open windows use:

Ctrl+W W

To move in a direction use:

Ctrl+W h/j/k/l

See here for more.

Insert block comment in Vim

See here for line-commenting.

So it's:

  1. Ctrl+V (Note: not Shift+V!)
  2. Up/Down to select rows
  3. Shift+I
  4. Enter your text, e.g. '#' or '//'
  5. Ctrl+[ (or 'Esc')

Navigate to matching tag

To navigate to the matching beginning or end tag use '%'.

You can also use e.g. '[{' to match the previous '{', or e.g. '])' to match the next ')'.

Auto-format HTML tags

Stolen from here.

  1. first join all the lines - ggVGgJ
  2. Now break tags to new lines - :%s/>\s*</>\r</g
  3. Now set filetype - :set ft=html (you can do this before too)
  4. Now Indent - ggVG=

Links

Create PDF from text using Vim

Generate PDF from input.txt with:

$ vim input.txt -c "hardcopy > doc.ps | q" && ps2pdf doc.ps

Examine output with:

$ okular doc.pdf

Write

Talking to other users on the system

write is a unix command for talking to other users on the system. To use write:

1. SSH to <username>@<hostname> and login with your username and password.

2. Issue the following command to find out who is logged onto the system:

$ who

3. Issue the following command to talk to a specific user:

$ write <username>

4. Enter the message you'd like to send the user, followed by Ctrl+C to send. Press Ctrl+D to cancel.

Date

Reporting the time on the server

$ date

Reporting UTC time

$ date --utc

Getting the date in yyyy-MM-dd-hhmmss format

$ date="`date +%F-%H%M%S`"

Getting the year in four digits

$ year="`date +%Y`"

Getting the month in two digits

$ month="`date +%m`"

Getting the day of the month in two digits

$ day="`date +%d`"

Getting yesterday's date

$ date --date='1 day ago' +%Y-%m-%d

Converting Unix time (seconds since epoch)

For timestamp '1501370200':

$ date -d @1501370200 +%F-%H%M%S

Running timedatectl from systemd

There's a new command bundled with systmed:

# timedatectl

It reports on (and controls) how the system time is configured.

MySQL (and MariaDB)

Run mysql without authentication/authorisation

# service mysql stop
# mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables &

Then you can connect without a password, e.g.:

# mysql -u root mysql

To stop the unauthenticated service:

# mysqladmin shutdown

Then restart a normal service:

# service mysql start

Logging all database queries

# vim /etc/mysql/my.cnf

In the [mysqld] section add:

log=/tmp/mysql.log

Then:

# service mysql restart

Watch the log with:

# tail -f /tmp/mysql.log

Or:

SET GLOBAL log_output = 'FILE';
SET GLOBAL general_log_file = 'my_logs.txt';
SET GLOBAL general_log = 'ON';

my_logs.txt will be in /var/lib/mysql

Dumping a MySQL database

You can dump the database into a file using:

$ mysqldump -h hostname -u user --password=password databasename > filename

Loading a MySQL database from a dump file

You can create a database using:

$ echo create database databasename | mysql -h hostname -u user -p

You can restore a database using:

$ mysql -h hostname -u user --password=password databasename < filename

Creating a MySQL user

# mysql -h localhost -u root --password=<password>
mysql> create user 'username'@'localhost' identified by '<password>';

Granting all MySQL user permissions

# mysql -h localhost -u root --password=<password>
mysql> grant all privileges on dbname.* to user@host;

Select domain name from email address

SELECT SUBSTR( email, INSTR( email, '@' ) + 1 )

Check if MySQL connection is encrypted with TLS/SSL

Check the SSL version in use:

show status like 'Ssl_version';

Or check the cipher in use:

show status like 'Ssl_cipher';

Report on server config

See SHOW Statements for the full list, but check out:

SHOW VARIABLES

and

SHOW STATUS

and

SHOW PROCESSLIST

Monitor MySQL activity

$ watch "mysql -t -e 'show processlist'"

Apache

Reporting loaded Apache modules

# apache2ctl -M

Maintaining .htaccess passwords

To add or modify the password for a user:

$ htpasswd /etc/apache2/passwd username

Configuring PHP session timeout in .htaccess

For a session timeout of 9 hours:

php_value session.cookie_lifetime 32400
php_value session.gc_maxlifetime 32400

Disabling PHP magic quotes in .htaccess

php_flag magic_quotes_gpc Off

Requiring HTTP Auth in .htaccess

AuthType Basic
AuthName "Speak Friend And Enter"
AuthUserFile /home/jj5/.htpasswd
Require valid-user

Restarting Apache

The hard way

$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

The graceful way (avoids dropping active connections)

$ sudo apache2ctl graceful

Allowing directory browsing

To show directory index pages, in the apache config file:

<Directory /var/www/data>
  Options Indexes
</Directory>

C

Locating memset function

The memset function is in <string.h> as described in this article Using memset(), memcpy(), and memmove() in C

Links

PHP

Including a file relative to the including file

require_once( dirname( __FILE__ ) . '/relative/path/to.php' );

Enabling error reporting

error_reporting( E_ALL | E_STRICT );
ini_set( 'display_errors', 'On' );

Setting an error handler

set_error_handler( "error_handler", E_ALL | E_STRICT );
function error_handler( $error_code, $error_message, $error_file, $error_line, $error_context ) {
  // ...
}

Disable HTML content in var_dump

ini_set( 'html_errors', 'off' );

Report PHP modules

$ php -m

PHP Security Best Practices For Sys Admins

See Linux 25 PHP Security Best Practices For Sys Admins.

BASH scripting

For a primer on bash scripting see TFM: Erotic Fantasy: /bin/sh Programming.

Telling a script to run in bash

The first line of the file should be:

#!/bin/bash

Checking if a command-line argument was passed in

if [ -n "$1" ]; then
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
  exit 1;
fi

Checking if a command-line argument was not passed in

if [ "$1" = "" ]; then
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
  exit 1;
fi

Or:

if [ -z "$1" ]; then
  echo "Missing parameter 1.";
  exit 1;
fi

Checking command exit status

cd /my/path
if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
  echo "Cannot change dir.";
  exit 1;
fi

Checking if a file does/doesn't exist

Check if file exists:

if [ -f "/my/file" ]; then
  cat /my/file
fi

Check if file doesn't exist:

if [ ! -f "/my/file" ]; then
  touch /my/file
fi

Checking if a directory does/doesn't exist

Check if directory exists:

if [ -d "/my/dir" ]; then
  rmdir /my/dir
fi

Check if directory doesn't exist:

if [ ! -d "/my/dir" ]; then
  mkdir /my/dir
fi

Deleting old backups

To keep only the latest five backups:

find . -maxdepth 1 -type f -printf '%T@ %p\0' | sort -r -z -n | awk 'BEGIN { RS="\0"; ORS="\0"; FS="" } NR > 5 { sub("^[0-9]*(.[0-9]*)? ", ""); print }' | xargs -0 rm -f

This script stolen from stackoverflow.

Requires GNU find for -printf, GNU sort for -z, GNU awk for "\0" and GNU xargs for -0, but handles files with embedded newlines or spaces.

Changing into the script's directory

cd "`dirname $0`"

Getting the absolute path of a relative path

readlink -f ./some/path

Creating a temp directory

dir=`mktemp -d` && cd $dir

Reading secret input from stdin

You can read a secret, such as a password, like this:

echo -n "Enter passphrase: "
stty -echo
read passphrase;
stty echo
echo ""

After running the above the secret will be in the $passphrase environment variable.

String replacements in bash

See the string manipulation doco. Basically, to replace first occurrence:

result=${var/find/replace}

To replace all occurrences:

result=${var//find/replace}

A practical example, get an ISO date and turn it into a path:

date="$(date +%Y-%m-%d)"
work_dir=${date//-//}

Sending a HEREDOC to a file

cat << EOF > /tmp/yourfilehere
These contents will be written to the file.
        This line is indented.
EOF

Bash case/switch statement

See using case statements, e.g.:

case $space in
[1-6]*)
  Message="All is quiet."
  ;;
[7-8]*)
  Message="Start thinking about cleaning out some stuff.  There's a partition that is $space % full."
  ;;
9[1-8])
  Message="Better hurry with that new disk...  One partition is $space % full."
  ;;
99)
  Message="I'm drowning here!  There's a partition at $space %!"
  ;;
*)
  Message="I seem to be running with an nonexistent amount of disk space..."
  ;;
esac

Using dotglob shopt to match dot-files

To enable dot-file matching in globs, set the dotglob shell option:

$ shopt -s dotglob

Stopping a script from running if it previously exited due to error

persistentDataDir=/var/lib/something
alarm() {
  touch $persistentDataDir/alarm
}
trap alarm ERR
[ -f $persistentDataDir/alarm ] && exit 1

Make sure only one instance of a script is running at a time

ephemeralDataDir=/var/run/something
unlock() {
  rmdir $ephemeralDataDir/lock
}
mkdir $ephemeralDataDir/lock || exit 1;
trap unlock EXIT

BASH programming advice

See Anybody can write good bash (with a little effort).

Run a command using arguments that come from an array

See here:

#!/bin/bash
tabs=("first tab" "second tab")
args=()
for t in "${tabs[@]}" ; do 
  args+=(-t "$t")
done
app "${args[@]}"

Display a CSV in columnar or tabular format

$ column -t -s , data.csv

Maximum command line length

Technically this is an operating system limit, not a BASH limit.

$ getconf ARG_MAX    # Get argument limit in bytes/chars

Sed

Find and replace with sed

To update the current file use '-i'. E.g.:

sed -i 's/search-text/replace-text/' file

Awk

Listing IP addresses in an Apache web log

awk '/GET \/path\/for\/url/ { print $1 }' /var/log/apache2/access.log | sort | uniq

Printing space-separated field

echo 'no no yes no' | awk '{print $3}'

Printing delimited field

echo 'no:no:yes:no' | awk -F ':' '{print $3}'

Subversion

Setting svn:externals from the command-line

See here.

To set an svn:externals from the command-line:

svn propset svn:externals 'rdfind-php https://www.progclub.org/svn/pcrepo/rdfind.php/branches/0.1' .
svn ci -m 'Adding svn:externals for rdfind-php...'
svn up

Or to use a file:

svn propset svn:externals -F svn.externals .

Setting svn:ignore from the command line

See here.

$ svn propset svn:ignore [file|folder] [path]

Or use a file and apply recursively:

$ svn propset svn:ignore -RF ./svn-ignore-list.txt .

Git

Showing status of working copy

git status

Showing repo history

git log

Showing remote repositories (including 'origin')

git remote -v

Handy git aliases

Save these to your ~/.gitconfig file.

For a nicer view of history than standard 'git log' -- colourful, one-line-per commit, etc:

 graph = !git log --all --graph --color --abbrev-commit --pretty=oneline

To show only the files that have changed, rather than the full line-by-line content:

 dif   = !git diff --name-status

Show git remote URL

git config --get remote.origin.url

IRC

Instructing ChanServ to op an admin

/msg ChanServ op #channel user

E.g.

/msg ChanServ op #gnurc jj5

Sub 'op' for 'deop' to remove op privilege.

C++

C++ books

Books I want

Books I own

Books I'm not reading

Books I've read

C++ blogs/articles

C++ performance tips

  • ++c can be faster than c++.
  • use const for everything that you possibly can.
  • use 'inline' when you need to define a function in a header. Typically only do that if it's small and the increase in code size from inlining is worth the cost to avoid the cost of a function call. For anything except trivially small functions you'll probably need to profile to know if it's worth it.
  • don't use registers.
  • const rarely affects performance.
  • debunking a number of C++ myths that won't die.
  • std::sort<> is typically faster than qsort() because it can avoid indirection at runtime.
  • if you've got parallelisation going on, you may be able to just replace a std::for_each with a parallel equivalent.
  • read about performance cost of RTTI (Run Time Type Information) and how to disable it
  • don't use dynamic_cast because it is slow (typeid is faster but still relies on RTTI)
  • prefer unique_ptr to shared_ptr when possible. unique_ptr has less overhead.
  • Which is better, static or dynamic linking?
  • Integer vs Floating-Point performance

systemd

systemd is an init system used in most Linux distributions to bootstrap the user space and manage all processes subsequently.

Following a service log

e.g. for bind9:

# journalctl -f -u bind9

or for everything:

# journalctl -f

System status

To see spawned services hierarchy:

# systemctl status

Or for a specific service e.g.:

# systemctl status networking

SaltStack

Running a command on specified minions

From the salt master:

salt 'host' cmd.run 'update-locale'

From the salt minion:

salt-call cmd.run 'update-locale'

Running a command on all minions

salt '*' cmd.run 'update-locale'

Running a specific state file

From the salt master:

salt $MINION_ID state.sls $STATE_FILE

From the salt minion:

salt-call state.sls $STATE_FILE

Listing active jobs

salt-run jobs.active

Listing available grains

salt 'example' grains.items

Listing available pillar

salt 'example' pillar.items

Reporting a grain value

e.g. for the 'mem_total' grain:

salt '*' grains.item mem_total

Passing a variable into a Jinja template from a salt state (SLS)

e.g.: to pass 'zabbix_deb_{pkg,url}' variables into the source.txt template:

/srv/zabbix/release/{{ zabbix_deb_pkg }}.txt:
  file.managed:
    - template: jinja
    - user: root
    - group: root
    - mode: 644
    - source: salt://file/srv/zabbix/release/source.txt
    - require:
      - file: /srv/zabbix/release
    - default:
      zabbix_deb_pkg: {{ zabbix_deb_pkg }}
      zabbix_deb_url: {{ zabbix_deb_url }}

KDE

Running user login script (X11/XOrg/XWindows)

A way to run user login scripts which works for KDE Plasma (and apparently other X.Org Server X Window System environments) is to create a *.desktop file in ~/.config/autostart/. For example I have a ~/.config/autostart/ssh-add.desktop file with the following contents to register my SSH key in the SSH Agent:

[Desktop Entry]
Type=Application
Name=ssh-add
Comment=Adds my private key to my session.
Exec=/usr/bin/konsole -e 'ssh-add /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa'

Standard KDE shortcut key bindings

Name Shortcut Command
Insert comment F1 xdotool type "$(date +%Y-%m-%d ) $USER - "
Insert sydtime F4 xdotool type "$(date +%Y-%m-%d-%H%M%S)"
Konsole Meta+T konsole
Dolphin Meta+E dolphin
Kate Ctrl+Shift+F12 kate
KCalc Ctrl+Shift+F11 kcalc
Firefox Ctrl+Shift+F10 firefox

Shutting down KDE/Plasma

# /etc/init.d/sddm stop

VirtualBox

Mounting a VirtualBox VDI file

Note: instead of doing this consider booting with a live CD.

See here:

Install qemu if necessary:

# apt install qemu

Then you'll need to load the network block device module:

# rmmod nbd
# modprobe nbd max_part=16

Attach the .vdi image to one of the nbd you just created:

# qemu-nbd -c /dev/nbd0 drive.vdi

Now you will get a /dev/nbd0 block device, along with several /dev/nbd0p* partition device nodes.

# mount /dev/nbd0p1 /mnt

Once you are done, unmount everything and disconnect the device:

# qemu-nbd -d /dev/nbd0

Elasticsearch

Report on health of your Elasticsearch cluster

$ curl http://localhost:9200/_cluster/health?pretty

Zabbix

Zabbix Agent on Mac OS X

Download and install agent.

Config file is here: /usr/local/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf

Unload agent with:

# launchctl unload /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.zabbix.zabbix_agentd.plist

Load agent with:

# launchctl load /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.zabbix.zabbix_agentd.plist

To add a 'pki' group:

# dseditgroup -o create pki

To monitor syslog on Mac OS X:

# tail -f /var/log/system.log

Installing Zabbix Agent from source on Mac OS X

Download sources from https://www.zabbix.com/download_sources

$ brew update
$ brew install openssl
$ brew install pcre
jj5@condor:~/Desktop/zabbix-4.4.7$ ./configure --enable-agent --with-openssl=/usr/local/opt/openssl/
jj5@condor:~/Desktop/zabbix-4.4.7$ sudo make install

NetBeans

NetBeans shortcut keys

Keys Action
Ctrl+W Close active window
Alt+Shift+K Open in Terminal
Ctrl+U U Convert selected text to uppercase
Ctrl+U L Convert selected text to lowercase

XML

How to pretty-print an XML file

$ xmllint --format input.xml > output.xml

ApacheBench

Run a benchmark with ApacheBench

$ ab -n 1000 -c 100 https://www.example.com/